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Accessory Muscles, Ankle and Foot
Julia R. Crim, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Anatomical variant; supernumerary muscle
            • Named for muscle with which it is closely associated

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Aparisi Gómez MP et al: Anatomical variation in the ankle and foot: from incidental finding to inductor of pathology. Part I: ankle and hindfoot. Insights Imaging. 10(1):74, 2019
                                    2. Burrus MT et al: Chronic leg pain in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 43(6):1538-47, 2015
                                    3. Bilgili MG et al: Peroneus quartus: prevalance and clinical importance. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 134(4):481-7, 2014
                                    4. Duran-Stanton AM et al: Magnetic resonance diagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome due to flexor digitorum accessorius longus and peroneocalcaneus internus muscles. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 34(2):270-2, 2010
                                    5. Luck MD et al: High association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. Skeletal Radiol. 37(12):1129-33, 2008
                                    6. Sookur PA et al: Accessory muscles: anatomy, symptoms, and radiologic evaluation. Radiographics. 28(2):481-99, 2008
                                    7. Doda N et al: Symptomatic accessory soleus muscle: diagnosis and follow-up on magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol. 79(946):e129-32, 2006
                                    8. Wang XT et al. Normal variants and diseases of the peroneal tendons and superior peroneal retinaculum: MR imaging features. Radiographics 25(3):587-602, 2005
                                    9. Eberle CF et al: The accessory flexor digitorum longus as a cause of flexor hallucis syndrome. Foot Ankle Int. 23(1):51-5, 2002
                                    10. Cheung Y et al: MR imaging of the accessory muscles around the ankle. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 9(3):465-73, x, 2001
                                    11. Cheung YY et al: Peroneus quartus muscle: MR imaging features. Radiology. 202(3):745-50, 1997
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Anatomical variant; supernumerary muscle
                                              • Named for muscle with which it is closely associated

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Consider

                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Aparisi Gómez MP et al: Anatomical variation in the ankle and foot: from incidental finding to inductor of pathology. Part I: ankle and hindfoot. Insights Imaging. 10(1):74, 2019
                                                                      2. Burrus MT et al: Chronic leg pain in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 43(6):1538-47, 2015
                                                                      3. Bilgili MG et al: Peroneus quartus: prevalance and clinical importance. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 134(4):481-7, 2014
                                                                      4. Duran-Stanton AM et al: Magnetic resonance diagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome due to flexor digitorum accessorius longus and peroneocalcaneus internus muscles. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 34(2):270-2, 2010
                                                                      5. Luck MD et al: High association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. Skeletal Radiol. 37(12):1129-33, 2008
                                                                      6. Sookur PA et al: Accessory muscles: anatomy, symptoms, and radiologic evaluation. Radiographics. 28(2):481-99, 2008
                                                                      7. Doda N et al: Symptomatic accessory soleus muscle: diagnosis and follow-up on magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol. 79(946):e129-32, 2006
                                                                      8. Wang XT et al. Normal variants and diseases of the peroneal tendons and superior peroneal retinaculum: MR imaging features. Radiographics 25(3):587-602, 2005
                                                                      9. Eberle CF et al: The accessory flexor digitorum longus as a cause of flexor hallucis syndrome. Foot Ankle Int. 23(1):51-5, 2002
                                                                      10. Cheung Y et al: MR imaging of the accessory muscles around the ankle. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 9(3):465-73, x, 2001
                                                                      11. Cheung YY et al: Peroneus quartus muscle: MR imaging features. Radiology. 202(3):745-50, 1997