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Accessory Muscles, Ankle and Foot
Julia R. Crim, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Morphologically normal muscle that is present in only small percentage of population
            • Named for muscle with which it is closely associated

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Treatment

                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                            • Consider

                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                • Reporting Tips

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Burrus MT et al: Chronic leg pain in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 43(6):1538-47, 2015
                                  2. Bilgili MG et al: Peroneus quartus: prevalance and clinical importance. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 134(4):481-7, 2014
                                  3. Duran-Stanton AM et al: Magnetic resonance diagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome due to flexor digitorum accessorius longus and peroneocalcaneus internus muscles. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 34(2):270-2, 2010
                                  4. Luck MD et al: High association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. Skeletal Radiol. 37(12):1129-33, 2008
                                  5. Sookur PA et al: Accessory muscles: anatomy, symptoms, and radiologic evaluation. Radiographics. 28(2):481-99, 2008
                                  6. Doda N et al: Symptomatic accessory soleus muscle: diagnosis and follow-up on magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol. 79(946):e129-32, 2006
                                  7. Wang XT et al. Normal variants and diseases of the peroneal tendons and superior peroneal retinaculum: MR imaging features. Radiographics 25(3):587-602, 2005
                                  8. Eberle CF et al: The accessory flexor digitorum longus as a cause of Flexor Hallucis Syndrome. Foot Ankle Int. 23(1):51-5, 2002
                                  9. Cheung Y et al: MR imaging of the accessory muscles around the ankle. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 9(3):465-73, x, 2001
                                  10. Cheung YY et al: Peroneus quartus muscle: MR imaging features. Radiology. 202(3):745-50, 1997
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Morphologically normal muscle that is present in only small percentage of population
                                            • Named for muscle with which it is closely associated

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Burrus MT et al: Chronic leg pain in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 43(6):1538-47, 2015
                                                                  2. Bilgili MG et al: Peroneus quartus: prevalance and clinical importance. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 134(4):481-7, 2014
                                                                  3. Duran-Stanton AM et al: Magnetic resonance diagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome due to flexor digitorum accessorius longus and peroneocalcaneus internus muscles. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 34(2):270-2, 2010
                                                                  4. Luck MD et al: High association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. Skeletal Radiol. 37(12):1129-33, 2008
                                                                  5. Sookur PA et al: Accessory muscles: anatomy, symptoms, and radiologic evaluation. Radiographics. 28(2):481-99, 2008
                                                                  6. Doda N et al: Symptomatic accessory soleus muscle: diagnosis and follow-up on magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol. 79(946):e129-32, 2006
                                                                  7. Wang XT et al. Normal variants and diseases of the peroneal tendons and superior peroneal retinaculum: MR imaging features. Radiographics 25(3):587-602, 2005
                                                                  8. Eberle CF et al: The accessory flexor digitorum longus as a cause of Flexor Hallucis Syndrome. Foot Ankle Int. 23(1):51-5, 2002
                                                                  9. Cheung Y et al: MR imaging of the accessory muscles around the ankle. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 9(3):465-73, x, 2001
                                                                  10. Cheung YY et al: Peroneus quartus muscle: MR imaging features. Radiology. 202(3):745-50, 1997