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Achalasia
Julia Alegría, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Achalasia: Esophageal dilatation due to primary motility disorder
                  • Failure of relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter
                • Pseudoachalasia: Esophageal dilatation due to other abnormalities
                  • Reflux esophagitis
                  • Chagas disease (trypanosomiasis)
                  • Esophageal cancer, metastases

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Rieder E et al: Achalasia: physiology and diagnosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ePub, 2020
                                        2. Vaezi MF et al: ACG clinical guidelines: diagnosis and management of achalasia. Am J Gastroenterol. 115(9):1393-411, 2020
                                        3. Zaninotto G et al: The 2018 ISDE achalasia guidelines. Dis Esophagus. 31(9), 2018
                                        4. Stavropoulos SN et al: Diagnosis and management of esophageal achalasia. BMJ. 354:i2785, 2016
                                        5. Ba-Ssalamah A et al: Dedicated multi-detector CT of the esophagus: spectrum of diseases. Abdom Imaging. 34(1):3-18, 2009
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Achalasia: Esophageal dilatation due to primary motility disorder
                                                        • Failure of relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter
                                                      • Pseudoachalasia: Esophageal dilatation due to other abnormalities
                                                        • Reflux esophagitis
                                                        • Chagas disease (trypanosomiasis)
                                                        • Esophageal cancer, metastases

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Rieder E et al: Achalasia: physiology and diagnosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ePub, 2020
                                                                              2. Vaezi MF et al: ACG clinical guidelines: diagnosis and management of achalasia. Am J Gastroenterol. 115(9):1393-411, 2020
                                                                              3. Zaninotto G et al: The 2018 ISDE achalasia guidelines. Dis Esophagus. 31(9), 2018
                                                                              4. Stavropoulos SN et al: Diagnosis and management of esophageal achalasia. BMJ. 354:i2785, 2016
                                                                              5. Ba-Ssalamah A et al: Dedicated multi-detector CT of the esophagus: spectrum of diseases. Abdom Imaging. 34(1):3-18, 2009