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Acquired Subglottic-Tracheal Stenosis
Troy A. Hutchins, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Subglottic stenosis
              • Laryngotracheal stenosis
            • Definitions

              • Nondevelopmental narrowing of cervical airway below vocal cords
                • Due to intrinsic pathology or extrinsic process compressing or invading airway

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. D'Andrilli A et al: Subglottic tracheal stenosis. J Thorac Dis. 8(Suppl 2):S140-7, 2016
                                        2. Young E et al: Tracheal stenosis following percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy using the single tapered dilator: an MRI study. Anaesth Intensive Care. 42(6):745-51, 2014
                                        3. Melkane AE et al: Management of postintubation tracheal stenosis: appropriate indications make outcome differences. Respiration. 79(5):395-401, 2010
                                        4. Herrington HC et al: Modern management of laryngotracheal stenosis. Laryngoscope. 116(9):1553-7, 2006
                                        5. Sarper A et al: Tracheal stenosis after tracheostomy or intubation: review with special regard to cause and management. Tex Heart Inst J. 32(2):154-8, 2005
                                        6. Berrocal T et al: Congenital anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree, lung, and mediastinum: embryology, radiology, and pathology. Radiographics. 24(1):e17, 2004
                                        7. Moorjani N et al: Virtual bronchoscopy and 3D spiral CT reconstructions in the management of kyphosis induced tracheal compression. Thorax. 59(3):272, 2004
                                        8. Elliott M et al: The management of congenital tracheal stenosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 67 Suppl 1:S183-92, 2003
                                        9. Grenier PA et al: Multidetector-row CT of the airways. Semin Roentgenol. 38(2):146-57, 2003
                                        10. Lorenz RR: Adult laryngotracheal stenosis: etiology and surgical management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 11(6):467-72, 2003
                                        11. Mostafa BE: Endoluminal stenting for tracheal stenosis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 260(9):465-8, 2003
                                        12. Wain JC: Postintubation tracheal stenosis. Chest Surg Clin N Am. 13(2):231-46, 2003
                                        13. Wood DE et al: Airway stenting for malignant and benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 76(1):167-72; discussion 173-4, 2003
                                        14. Faust RA et al: Cine magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of focal tracheomalacia: innominate artery compression syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 65(1):27-33, 2002
                                        15. Grenier PA et al: New frontiers in CT imaging of airway disease. Eur Radiol. 12(5):1022-44, 2002
                                        16. Hoppe H et al: Multidetector CT virtual bronchoscopy to grade tracheobronchial stenosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(5):1195-200, 2002
                                        17. Lee KH et al: Benign tracheobronchial stenoses: long-term clinical experience with balloon dilation. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 13(9 Pt 1):909-14, 2002
                                        18. Prince JS et al: Nonneoplastic lesions of the tracheobronchial wall: radiologic findings with bronchoscopic correlation. Radiographics. 22 Spec No:S215-30, 2002
                                        19. Rea F et al: Benign tracheal and laryngotracheal stenosis: surgical treatment and results. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 22(3):352-6, 2002
                                        20. Zagalo C et al: Morphology of trachea in benign human tracheal stenosis: a clinicopathological study of 20 patients undergoing surgery. Surg Radiol Anat. 24(3-4):160-8, 2002
                                        21. Faust RA et al: Real-time, cine magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pediatric airway. Laryngoscope. 111(12):2187-90, 2001
                                        22. Gluecker T et al: 2D and 3D CT imaging correlated to rigid endoscopy in complex laryngo-tracheal stenoses. Eur Radiol. 11(1):50-4, 2001
                                        23. Heussel CP et al: Paired inspiratory/expiratory spiral CT and continuous respiration cine CT in the diagnosis of tracheal instability. Eur Radiol. 11(6):982-9, 2001
                                        24. Berdon WE: Rings, slings, and other things: vascular compression of the infant trachea updated from the midcentury to the millennium--the legacy of Robert E. Gross, MD, and Edward B. D. Neuhauser, MD. Radiology. 216(3):624-32, 2000
                                        25. Tsunezuka Y et al: Tracheobronchial involvement in relapsing polychondritis. Respiration. 67(3):320-2, 2000
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Subglottic stenosis
                                                    • Laryngotracheal stenosis
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Nondevelopmental narrowing of cervical airway below vocal cords
                                                      • Due to intrinsic pathology or extrinsic process compressing or invading airway

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. D'Andrilli A et al: Subglottic tracheal stenosis. J Thorac Dis. 8(Suppl 2):S140-7, 2016
                                                                              2. Young E et al: Tracheal stenosis following percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy using the single tapered dilator: an MRI study. Anaesth Intensive Care. 42(6):745-51, 2014
                                                                              3. Melkane AE et al: Management of postintubation tracheal stenosis: appropriate indications make outcome differences. Respiration. 79(5):395-401, 2010
                                                                              4. Herrington HC et al: Modern management of laryngotracheal stenosis. Laryngoscope. 116(9):1553-7, 2006
                                                                              5. Sarper A et al: Tracheal stenosis after tracheostomy or intubation: review with special regard to cause and management. Tex Heart Inst J. 32(2):154-8, 2005
                                                                              6. Berrocal T et al: Congenital anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree, lung, and mediastinum: embryology, radiology, and pathology. Radiographics. 24(1):e17, 2004
                                                                              7. Moorjani N et al: Virtual bronchoscopy and 3D spiral CT reconstructions in the management of kyphosis induced tracheal compression. Thorax. 59(3):272, 2004
                                                                              8. Elliott M et al: The management of congenital tracheal stenosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 67 Suppl 1:S183-92, 2003
                                                                              9. Grenier PA et al: Multidetector-row CT of the airways. Semin Roentgenol. 38(2):146-57, 2003
                                                                              10. Lorenz RR: Adult laryngotracheal stenosis: etiology and surgical management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 11(6):467-72, 2003
                                                                              11. Mostafa BE: Endoluminal stenting for tracheal stenosis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 260(9):465-8, 2003
                                                                              12. Wain JC: Postintubation tracheal stenosis. Chest Surg Clin N Am. 13(2):231-46, 2003
                                                                              13. Wood DE et al: Airway stenting for malignant and benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 76(1):167-72; discussion 173-4, 2003
                                                                              14. Faust RA et al: Cine magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of focal tracheomalacia: innominate artery compression syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 65(1):27-33, 2002
                                                                              15. Grenier PA et al: New frontiers in CT imaging of airway disease. Eur Radiol. 12(5):1022-44, 2002
                                                                              16. Hoppe H et al: Multidetector CT virtual bronchoscopy to grade tracheobronchial stenosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(5):1195-200, 2002
                                                                              17. Lee KH et al: Benign tracheobronchial stenoses: long-term clinical experience with balloon dilation. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 13(9 Pt 1):909-14, 2002
                                                                              18. Prince JS et al: Nonneoplastic lesions of the tracheobronchial wall: radiologic findings with bronchoscopic correlation. Radiographics. 22 Spec No:S215-30, 2002
                                                                              19. Rea F et al: Benign tracheal and laryngotracheal stenosis: surgical treatment and results. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 22(3):352-6, 2002
                                                                              20. Zagalo C et al: Morphology of trachea in benign human tracheal stenosis: a clinicopathological study of 20 patients undergoing surgery. Surg Radiol Anat. 24(3-4):160-8, 2002
                                                                              21. Faust RA et al: Real-time, cine magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pediatric airway. Laryngoscope. 111(12):2187-90, 2001
                                                                              22. Gluecker T et al: 2D and 3D CT imaging correlated to rigid endoscopy in complex laryngo-tracheal stenoses. Eur Radiol. 11(1):50-4, 2001
                                                                              23. Heussel CP et al: Paired inspiratory/expiratory spiral CT and continuous respiration cine CT in the diagnosis of tracheal instability. Eur Radiol. 11(6):982-9, 2001
                                                                              24. Berdon WE: Rings, slings, and other things: vascular compression of the infant trachea updated from the midcentury to the millennium--the legacy of Robert E. Gross, MD, and Edward B. D. Neuhauser, MD. Radiology. 216(3):624-32, 2000
                                                                              25. Tsunezuka Y et al: Tracheobronchial involvement in relapsing polychondritis. Respiration. 67(3):320-2, 2000