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Acquired Toxoplasmosis
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Toxoplasmosis encephalitis (TE)
            • Definitions

              • Opportunistic infection caused by ubiquitous intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii
                • Most common opportunistic CNS infection in HIV/AIDS

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Imaging Recommendations

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Safarpour H et al: Global status of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors in people living with HIV. AIDS. 34(3):469-74, 2020
                                          2. Vidal JE: HIV-Related cerebral toxoplasmosis revisited: current concepts and controversies of an old disease. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 18:2325958219867315, 2019
                                          3. Benson JC et al: Imaging features of neurotoxoplasmosis: a multiparametric approach, with emphasis on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Eur J Radiol Open. 5:45-51, 2018
                                          4. Marra CM: Central nervous system infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Handb Clin Neurol. 152:117-22, 2018
                                          5. Wang ZD et al: Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Microbiol. 8:389, 2017
                                          6. Basavaraju A: Toxoplasmosis in HIV infection: an overview. Trop Parasitol. 6(2):129-35, 2016
                                          7. Gottumukkala RV et al: Imaging of the brain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):275-91, 2014
                                          8. Ho EL et al: Central nervous system diseases due to opportunistic and coinfections. Semin Neurol. 34(1):61-9, 2014
                                          9. Masamed R et al: Cerebral toxoplasmosis: case review and description of a new imaging sign. Clin Radiol. 64(5):560-3, 2009
                                          10. Smith AB et al: From the archives of the AFIP: central nervous system infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2008 Nov-Dec;28(7):2033-58. Review. Erratum in: Radiographics. 29(2):638, 2009
                                          11. Batra A et al: Magnetic resonance evaluation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Acta Radiol. 45(2):212-21, 2004
                                          12. Pomper MG et al: Quantitative MR spectroscopic imaging of brain lesions in patients with AIDS: correlation with [11C-methyl]thymidine PET and thallium-201 SPECT. Acad Radiol. 9(4):398-409, 2002
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Toxoplasmosis encephalitis (TE)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Opportunistic infection caused by ubiquitous intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii
                                                        • Most common opportunistic CNS infection in HIV/AIDS

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Safarpour H et al: Global status of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors in people living with HIV. AIDS. 34(3):469-74, 2020
                                                                                  2. Vidal JE: HIV-Related cerebral toxoplasmosis revisited: current concepts and controversies of an old disease. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 18:2325958219867315, 2019
                                                                                  3. Benson JC et al: Imaging features of neurotoxoplasmosis: a multiparametric approach, with emphasis on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Eur J Radiol Open. 5:45-51, 2018
                                                                                  4. Marra CM: Central nervous system infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Handb Clin Neurol. 152:117-22, 2018
                                                                                  5. Wang ZD et al: Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Microbiol. 8:389, 2017
                                                                                  6. Basavaraju A: Toxoplasmosis in HIV infection: an overview. Trop Parasitol. 6(2):129-35, 2016
                                                                                  7. Gottumukkala RV et al: Imaging of the brain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 23(5):275-91, 2014
                                                                                  8. Ho EL et al: Central nervous system diseases due to opportunistic and coinfections. Semin Neurol. 34(1):61-9, 2014
                                                                                  9. Masamed R et al: Cerebral toxoplasmosis: case review and description of a new imaging sign. Clin Radiol. 64(5):560-3, 2009
                                                                                  10. Smith AB et al: From the archives of the AFIP: central nervous system infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2008 Nov-Dec;28(7):2033-58. Review. Erratum in: Radiographics. 29(2):638, 2009
                                                                                  11. Batra A et al: Magnetic resonance evaluation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Acta Radiol. 45(2):212-21, 2004
                                                                                  12. Pomper MG et al: Quantitative MR spectroscopic imaging of brain lesions in patients with AIDS: correlation with [11C-methyl]thymidine PET and thallium-201 SPECT. Acad Radiol. 9(4):398-409, 2002