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Acronyms and Eponyms, Hand and Wrist
Carol L. Andrews, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    TERMINOLOGY

    • Abbreviations

      • Abductor pollicis longus (APL)
      • Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)
      • Distal interphalangeal joint (DIP)
      • Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ)
      • Extensor carpi radialis brevis (ERCB)
      • Extensor carpi radialis longus (ERCL)
      • Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)
      • Interphalangeal joint (first) (IP)
      • Metacarpal (MC)
      • Metacarpophalangeal (MCP)
      • Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP)
      • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
      • Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL)
    • Acronyms

      • CIA: Carpal instability adaptive; adaptation to extrinsic pathology
      • CID: Carpal instability dissociative; dysfunction between carpals in same row
      • CIND: Carpal instability nondissociative; dysfunction between radius/proximal carpal row or proximal/distal carpal row
      • CIC: Carpal instability complex; combination of CID and CIND
      • CLIP: Capitolunate instability pattern; related to radiocapitate ligament disruption
      • CRPS (RSD): Complex regional pain syndrome; chronic, progressive, severe pain; swelling and skin changes may be seen after injury
      • DISI: Dorsal intercalated segment instability; lunate dorsiflexed > 15° (greater range may be allowed) compared to capitate; scapholunate ligament injury associated
      • FOOSH: Fall on outstretched hand
      • MCI: Midcarpal instability; dysfunction between proximal/distal carpal row
      • PLI: Perilunate instability; failure of perilunate ligaments with progressive lunate malalignment
      • PMCI: Palmar midcarpal instability; dysfunction between proximal/distal carpal row ± VISI
      • RSD (CRPS) = Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
      • SLAC wrist: Scapholunate advanced collapse; scapholunate interval widening with capitate invaginating between scaphoid and lunate
      • SNAC wrist: Scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse; arthritis following scaphoid nonunion with carpal collapse
      • VISI: Volar intercalated segment instability; lunate volarly flexed > 15° (greater range may be allowed) compared to capitate; lunotriquetral ligament injury associated
    • Eponyms

      • Barton fracture: Intraarticular distal radius dorsal rim fracture; carpals dislocate dorsally, remaining with fracture fragment
      • Baseball finger (mallet finger): Forced flexion of extended DIP with injury to extensor tendon terminal band, ± associated dorsal distal phalanx base avulsion fracture, results in unopposed DIP flexion
      • Bennett fracture: Oblique intraarticular fracture of 1st metacarpal (MC) base resulting in small triangular volar/ulnar lip fragment
      • Boutonnière deformity: Extensor tendon central slip injury at or near insertion on middle phalanx, ± avulsion fracture of dorsal middle phalanx base, results in PIP flexion with DIP extension
      • Boxer's fracture: 5th MC neck fracture, MC head volar angulation
      • Boxer's knuckle: Extensor hood sagittal band tear at MCP with subluxation/dislocation of common extensor tendon, results from direct blow while joint flexed and finger ulnarly deviated
      • Chevron carpus: Triangulation of carpus, wedged between radius and ulna without significant distal radial or ulnar deformity
      • Chauffeur fracture (Hutchinson fracture): Oblique intraarticular radial styloid fracture; original description of injury sustained when early 20th century automobile backfired while chauffeur was hand cranking engine and crankshaft recoiled, striking wrist
      • Coach's finger: PIP dislocation, typically dorsal; ± volar plate injury; related to hyperextension injury from catching ball
      • Colles fracture (Pouteau fracture): Distal radius metaphyseal fracture with dorsal angulation, ± dorsal displacement, ± ulnar styloid fracture
      • de Quervain fracture: Transscaphoid perilunate fracture-dislocation
      • de Quervain tenosynovitis (washerwoman sprain, nursing mother wrist): 1st extensor compartment [extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) and abductor pollicis longus (APL)] tenosynovitis
      • Die-punch fracture: Intraarticular distal radius impaction fracture resulting from lunate impacting lunate fossa articular surface
      • Dinner fork deformity (silver fork deformity): Wrist deformity resulting from Colles fracture
      • Drop finger (baseball finger)
      • Duckbill deformity (hitchhiker's thumb): Thumb interphalangeal joint (IP) hyperextension and MCP flexion; commonly seen in RA, may also develop after tendon injury
      • Dupuytren contracture: Hand/finger contracture due to palmar fascia/skin fibrosis
      • Essex Lopresti fracture: Radial head fracture with associated distal radioulnar joint dislocation
      • Fight bite: Punching injury with tooth breaking skin, resulting in dorsal soft tissue over MCP ± MC head cortical fracture
      • Galeazzi fracture (reverse Monteggia fracture): Distal radial shaft fracture with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dislocation, ± ulnar styloid fracture
      • Gamekeeper's thumb (skier's thumb): Thumb MCP ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury, related to hyperabduction, ± avulsion fracture
      • Gamer's thumb/finger (gamer grip, PlayStation thumb, iPod/iPhone thumb, text messaging syndrome): Repetitive use injury resulting in pain, ± swelling, tendinitis
      • Garden spade deformity: Wrist deformity resulting from reverse Colles fracture
      • Gilula arcs (Gilula lines; arcs of Gilula): Lines representing carpal alignment; arcs 1 and 2 drawn proximal carpal row proximal and distal articular surfaces; arc 3 drawn along proximal capitate and hamate
      • Greenstick fracture: Incomplete long bone fracture with plastic bowing on compression side and cortical break on tension side
      • Gymnast wrist: Distal radial physeal injury with resultant osteolysis, related to repetitive trauma
      • Hitchhiker's thumb (duckbill deformity)
      • Hutchinson fracture (chauffeur fracture)
      • Hypothenar hammer syndrome: Thrombosis of ulnar artery superficial palmar arch, related to repetitive trauma to heel of hand, ± associated ulnar artery aneurysm
      • Humpback deformity: Apex dorsal angulation of proximal and distal fragments of scaphoid fracture
      • Intersection syndrome: Distal forearm extensor tenosynovitis at 1st (EPB & APL) and 2nd [extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) & longus (ECRL)] extensor compartment intersection
      • Jersey finger (rugby finger): Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon avulsion; most commonly affects ring finger; results from sudden hyperextension of actively flexed finger (e.g., grabbing opponent's jersey)
      • Kienböck disease (Lunate osteonecrosis)
      • Lead-pipe fracture: Incomplete long bone fracture; cortical break on tension side and buckled cortex on compression side
      • Mallet finger (baseball finger)
      • Madelung deformity: Distal radial physis deformity; results in volar/ulnar distal radial tilt, foreshortening and dorsal curvature of radius, distal radial epiphysis triangularization, dorsal ulna subluxation; carpal wedging with lunate at apex
      • Nightstick fracture (parry fracture): Isolated mid to distal ulnar shaft fracture, related to direct blow to ulna
      • Nursing mother's wrist/ thumb (de Quervain tenosynovitis)
      • Parry fracture (nightstick fracture)
      • Preiser disease (Scaphoid osteonecrosis)
      • Pseudo-boutonniere deformity: Results from PIP hyperextension with volar plate injury with intact extensor tendon; may cause PIP flexion contracture over time
      • Pouteau fracture (Colles fracture)
      • Reverse Barton fracture (volar Barton fracture): Intraarticular distal radius volar lip fracture; carpals displace volarly with fracture fragment
      • Reverse Colles fracture (Smith fracture): Distal radius metaphyseal fracture with volar angulation/displacement
      • Reverse Monteggia fracture (galeazzi fracture)
      • Rolando fracture: Intraarticular comminuted 1st MC base fracture; results in volar & dorsal lip fragments, forms Y- or T-shaped fragment
      • Rugby finger (Jersey finger)
      • Silver fork deformity (dinner fork deformity)
      • Skier's thumb (gamekeeper's thumb)
      • Smith fracture (reverse Colles fracture)
      • Stener lesion: Thumb UCL tear with retraction of torn ligament fibers proximal to adductor pollicis aponeurosis
      • Swan neck deformity: PIP extension with DIP flexion; results from volar plate injury at PIP or extensor tendon injury at DIP
      • Terry Thomas sign: Scapholunate ligament disruption with interspace widening; mimics space between front teeth (a.k.a. David Letterman sign)
      • Trigger finger: Locking, catching, or popping of finger through range of motion due to tenosynovitis
      • Torus fracture: Juvenile incomplete impaction fracture resulting in cortical buckling; resembles torus contour of Grecian column
      • Volar Barton fracture (reverse Barton fracture)
      • Volkmann contracture: Hand/wrist flexion contractures due to forearm compartment syndrome
      • Washerwoman's sprain (de Quervain tenosynovitis)

    Selected References

    1. Wong PK et al: What's in a name? Upper extremity fracture eponyms (Part 1). Int J Emerg Med. 8(1):75, 2015
    2. Aronson JK: Medical eponyms: taxonomies, natural history, and the evidence. BMJ. 349:g7586, 2014
    3. Kallen AM et al: On the history and definition of Preiser's disease. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 39(7):770-6, 2014
    4. Thurston AJ: 'Ao' or eponyms: the classification of wrist fractures. ANZ J Surg. 75(5):347-55, 2005
    5. Lee P et al: Musculoskeletal colloquialisms: how did we come up with these names? Radiographics. 24(4):1009-27, 2004
    6. Visotsky JL et al: Eponyms in orthopaedics. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A Suppl 2 Pt 2:123-7, 2001
    7. Hunter TB et al: Radiologic history exhibit. Musculoskeletal eponyms: who are those guys? Radiographics. 20(3):819-36, 2000
    8. Green DP et al. Green's Operative Hand Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005
    Related Anatomy
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    References
    Tables

    Tables

    KEY FACTS

    • Terminology

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Abbreviations

        • Abductor pollicis longus (APL)
        • Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)
        • Distal interphalangeal joint (DIP)
        • Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ)
        • Extensor carpi radialis brevis (ERCB)
        • Extensor carpi radialis longus (ERCL)
        • Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)
        • Interphalangeal joint (first) (IP)
        • Metacarpal (MC)
        • Metacarpophalangeal (MCP)
        • Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP)
        • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
        • Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL)
      • Acronyms

        • CIA: Carpal instability adaptive; adaptation to extrinsic pathology
        • CID: Carpal instability dissociative; dysfunction between carpals in same row
        • CIND: Carpal instability nondissociative; dysfunction between radius/proximal carpal row or proximal/distal carpal row
        • CIC: Carpal instability complex; combination of CID and CIND
        • CLIP: Capitolunate instability pattern; related to radiocapitate ligament disruption
        • CRPS (RSD): Complex regional pain syndrome; chronic, progressive, severe pain; swelling and skin changes may be seen after injury
        • DISI: Dorsal intercalated segment instability; lunate dorsiflexed > 15° (greater range may be allowed) compared to capitate; scapholunate ligament injury associated
        • FOOSH: Fall on outstretched hand
        • MCI: Midcarpal instability; dysfunction between proximal/distal carpal row
        • PLI: Perilunate instability; failure of perilunate ligaments with progressive lunate malalignment
        • PMCI: Palmar midcarpal instability; dysfunction between proximal/distal carpal row ± VISI
        • RSD (CRPS) = Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
        • SLAC wrist: Scapholunate advanced collapse; scapholunate interval widening with capitate invaginating between scaphoid and lunate
        • SNAC wrist: Scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse; arthritis following scaphoid nonunion with carpal collapse
        • VISI: Volar intercalated segment instability; lunate volarly flexed > 15° (greater range may be allowed) compared to capitate; lunotriquetral ligament injury associated
      • Eponyms

        • Barton fracture: Intraarticular distal radius dorsal rim fracture; carpals dislocate dorsally, remaining with fracture fragment
        • Baseball finger (mallet finger): Forced flexion of extended DIP with injury to extensor tendon terminal band, ± associated dorsal distal phalanx base avulsion fracture, results in unopposed DIP flexion
        • Bennett fracture: Oblique intraarticular fracture of 1st metacarpal (MC) base resulting in small triangular volar/ulnar lip fragment
        • Boutonnière deformity: Extensor tendon central slip injury at or near insertion on middle phalanx, ± avulsion fracture of dorsal middle phalanx base, results in PIP flexion with DIP extension
        • Boxer's fracture: 5th MC neck fracture, MC head volar angulation
        • Boxer's knuckle: Extensor hood sagittal band tear at MCP with subluxation/dislocation of common extensor tendon, results from direct blow while joint flexed and finger ulnarly deviated
        • Chevron carpus: Triangulation of carpus, wedged between radius and ulna without significant distal radial or ulnar deformity
        • Chauffeur fracture (Hutchinson fracture): Oblique intraarticular radial styloid fracture; original description of injury sustained when early 20th century automobile backfired while chauffeur was hand cranking engine and crankshaft recoiled, striking wrist
        • Coach's finger: PIP dislocation, typically dorsal; ± volar plate injury; related to hyperextension injury from catching ball
        • Colles fracture (Pouteau fracture): Distal radius metaphyseal fracture with dorsal angulation, ± dorsal displacement, ± ulnar styloid fracture
        • de Quervain fracture: Transscaphoid perilunate fracture-dislocation
        • de Quervain tenosynovitis (washerwoman sprain, nursing mother wrist): 1st extensor compartment [extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) and abductor pollicis longus (APL)] tenosynovitis
        • Die-punch fracture: Intraarticular distal radius impaction fracture resulting from lunate impacting lunate fossa articular surface
        • Dinner fork deformity (silver fork deformity): Wrist deformity resulting from Colles fracture
        • Drop finger (baseball finger)
        • Duckbill deformity (hitchhiker's thumb): Thumb interphalangeal joint (IP) hyperextension and MCP flexion; commonly seen in RA, may also develop after tendon injury
        • Dupuytren contracture: Hand/finger contracture due to palmar fascia/skin fibrosis
        • Essex Lopresti fracture: Radial head fracture with associated distal radioulnar joint dislocation
        • Fight bite: Punching injury with tooth breaking skin, resulting in dorsal soft tissue over MCP ± MC head cortical fracture
        • Galeazzi fracture (reverse Monteggia fracture): Distal radial shaft fracture with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dislocation, ± ulnar styloid fracture
        • Gamekeeper's thumb (skier's thumb): Thumb MCP ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury, related to hyperabduction, ± avulsion fracture
        • Gamer's thumb/finger (gamer grip, PlayStation thumb, iPod/iPhone thumb, text messaging syndrome): Repetitive use injury resulting in pain, ± swelling, tendinitis
        • Garden spade deformity: Wrist deformity resulting from reverse Colles fracture
        • Gilula arcs (Gilula lines; arcs of Gilula): Lines representing carpal alignment; arcs 1 and 2 drawn proximal carpal row proximal and distal articular surfaces; arc 3 drawn along proximal capitate and hamate
        • Greenstick fracture: Incomplete long bone fracture with plastic bowing on compression side and cortical break on tension side
        • Gymnast wrist: Distal radial physeal injury with resultant osteolysis, related to repetitive trauma
        • Hitchhiker's thumb (duckbill deformity)
        • Hutchinson fracture (chauffeur fracture)
        • Hypothenar hammer syndrome: Thrombosis of ulnar artery superficial palmar arch, related to repetitive trauma to heel of hand, ± associated ulnar artery aneurysm
        • Humpback deformity: Apex dorsal angulation of proximal and distal fragments of scaphoid fracture
        • Intersection syndrome: Distal forearm extensor tenosynovitis at 1st (EPB & APL) and 2nd [extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) & longus (ECRL)] extensor compartment intersection
        • Jersey finger (rugby finger): Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon avulsion; most commonly affects ring finger; results from sudden hyperextension of actively flexed finger (e.g., grabbing opponent's jersey)
        • Kienböck disease (Lunate osteonecrosis)
        • Lead-pipe fracture: Incomplete long bone fracture; cortical break on tension side and buckled cortex on compression side
        • Mallet finger (baseball finger)
        • Madelung deformity: Distal radial physis deformity; results in volar/ulnar distal radial tilt, foreshortening and dorsal curvature of radius, distal radial epiphysis triangularization, dorsal ulna subluxation; carpal wedging with lunate at apex
        • Nightstick fracture (parry fracture): Isolated mid to distal ulnar shaft fracture, related to direct blow to ulna
        • Nursing mother's wrist/ thumb (de Quervain tenosynovitis)
        • Parry fracture (nightstick fracture)
        • Preiser disease (Scaphoid osteonecrosis)
        • Pseudo-boutonniere deformity: Results from PIP hyperextension with volar plate injury with intact extensor tendon; may cause PIP flexion contracture over time
        • Pouteau fracture (Colles fracture)
        • Reverse Barton fracture (volar Barton fracture): Intraarticular distal radius volar lip fracture; carpals displace volarly with fracture fragment
        • Reverse Colles fracture (Smith fracture): Distal radius metaphyseal fracture with volar angulation/displacement
        • Reverse Monteggia fracture (galeazzi fracture)
        • Rolando fracture: Intraarticular comminuted 1st MC base fracture; results in volar & dorsal lip fragments, forms Y- or T-shaped fragment
        • Rugby finger (Jersey finger)
        • Silver fork deformity (dinner fork deformity)
        • Skier's thumb (gamekeeper's thumb)
        • Smith fracture (reverse Colles fracture)
        • Stener lesion: Thumb UCL tear with retraction of torn ligament fibers proximal to adductor pollicis aponeurosis
        • Swan neck deformity: PIP extension with DIP flexion; results from volar plate injury at PIP or extensor tendon injury at DIP
        • Terry Thomas sign: Scapholunate ligament disruption with interspace widening; mimics space between front teeth (a.k.a. David Letterman sign)
        • Trigger finger: Locking, catching, or popping of finger through range of motion due to tenosynovitis
        • Torus fracture: Juvenile incomplete impaction fracture resulting in cortical buckling; resembles torus contour of Grecian column
        • Volar Barton fracture (reverse Barton fracture)
        • Volkmann contracture: Hand/wrist flexion contractures due to forearm compartment syndrome
        • Washerwoman's sprain (de Quervain tenosynovitis)

      Selected References

      1. Wong PK et al: What's in a name? Upper extremity fracture eponyms (Part 1). Int J Emerg Med. 8(1):75, 2015
      2. Aronson JK: Medical eponyms: taxonomies, natural history, and the evidence. BMJ. 349:g7586, 2014
      3. Kallen AM et al: On the history and definition of Preiser's disease. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 39(7):770-6, 2014
      4. Thurston AJ: 'Ao' or eponyms: the classification of wrist fractures. ANZ J Surg. 75(5):347-55, 2005
      5. Lee P et al: Musculoskeletal colloquialisms: how did we come up with these names? Radiographics. 24(4):1009-27, 2004
      6. Visotsky JL et al: Eponyms in orthopaedics. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A Suppl 2 Pt 2:123-7, 2001
      7. Hunter TB et al: Radiologic history exhibit. Musculoskeletal eponyms: who are those guys? Radiographics. 20(3):819-36, 2000
      8. Green DP et al. Green's Operative Hand Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005