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Acute Pulmonary Embolism
Lynette Teo, MBChB(UK), FRCR(UK); Carol C. Wu, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Pulmonary artery (PA) blockage caused by clots that travel to PA from other parts of body

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Echocardiographic Findings

                        • Angiographic Findings

                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                            • Imaging Recommendations

                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                PATHOLOGY

                                • General Features

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    • Microscopic Features

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Moore AJE et al: Imaging of acute pulmonary embolism: an update. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):225-43, 2018
                                              2. Albrecht MH et al: State-of-the-art pulmonary CT angiography for acute pulmonary embolism. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 208(3):495-504, 2017
                                              3. Lee DS et al: Palla and Westermark signs. J Thorac Imaging. 32(4):W7, 2017
                                              4. Becattini C et al: Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism With New Anticoagulant Agents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 67(16):1941-55, 2016
                                              5. Meinel FG et al: Predictive Value of Computed Tomography in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Med. 128(7):747-59.e2, 2015
                                              6. Pruszczyk P et al: Prognostic value of echocardiography in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 7(6):553-60, 2014
                                              7. Bettmann MA et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® acute chest pain--suspected pulmonary embolism. J Thorac Imaging. 27(2):W28-31, 2012
                                              8. Leung AN et al: American Thoracic Society documents: an official American Thoracic Society/Society of Thoracic Radiology Clinical Practice Guideline--Evaluation of Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy. Radiology. 262(2):635-46, 2012
                                              9. Lu GM et al: Dual-energy CT of the lung. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(5 Suppl):S40-53, 2012
                                              10. Truong QA et al: Reference values for normal pulmonary artery dimensions by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography: the Framingham Heart Study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 5(1):147-54, 2012
                                              11. Douma RA et al: Acute pulmonary embolism. Part 1: epidemiology and diagnosis. Nat Rev Cardiol. 7(10):585-96, 2010
                                              12. Stein PD et al: Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for pulmonary embolism: a multicenter prospective study (PIOPED III). Ann Intern Med. 152(7):434-43, W142-3, 2010
                                              13. Remy-Jardin M et al: Management of Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism in the Era of CT Angiography: A Statement from the Fleischner Society. Radiology. 245(2):315-329, 2007
                                              14. Konstantinides S: Diagnosis and therapy of pulmonary embolism. Vasa. 35(3):135-46, 2006
                                              15. Le Gal G et al: Contemporary approach to the diagnosis of non-massive pulmonary embolism. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 12(5):291-8, 2006
                                              16. Schaefer-Prokop C et al: MDCT for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Radiol. 15 Suppl 4:D37-41, 2005
                                              17. Wittram C et al: CT angiography of pulmonary embolism: diagnostic criteria and causes of misdiagnosis. Radiographics. 24(5):1219-38, 2004
                                              18. Baron MG: Fleischner lines and pulmonary emboli. Circulation. 45(1):171-8, 1972
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Pulmonary artery (PA) blockage caused by clots that travel to PA from other parts of body

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Moore AJE et al: Imaging of acute pulmonary embolism: an update. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):225-43, 2018
                                                                                          2. Albrecht MH et al: State-of-the-art pulmonary CT angiography for acute pulmonary embolism. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 208(3):495-504, 2017
                                                                                          3. Lee DS et al: Palla and Westermark signs. J Thorac Imaging. 32(4):W7, 2017
                                                                                          4. Becattini C et al: Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism With New Anticoagulant Agents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 67(16):1941-55, 2016
                                                                                          5. Meinel FG et al: Predictive Value of Computed Tomography in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Med. 128(7):747-59.e2, 2015
                                                                                          6. Pruszczyk P et al: Prognostic value of echocardiography in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 7(6):553-60, 2014
                                                                                          7. Bettmann MA et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® acute chest pain--suspected pulmonary embolism. J Thorac Imaging. 27(2):W28-31, 2012
                                                                                          8. Leung AN et al: American Thoracic Society documents: an official American Thoracic Society/Society of Thoracic Radiology Clinical Practice Guideline--Evaluation of Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy. Radiology. 262(2):635-46, 2012
                                                                                          9. Lu GM et al: Dual-energy CT of the lung. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(5 Suppl):S40-53, 2012
                                                                                          10. Truong QA et al: Reference values for normal pulmonary artery dimensions by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography: the Framingham Heart Study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 5(1):147-54, 2012
                                                                                          11. Douma RA et al: Acute pulmonary embolism. Part 1: epidemiology and diagnosis. Nat Rev Cardiol. 7(10):585-96, 2010
                                                                                          12. Stein PD et al: Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for pulmonary embolism: a multicenter prospective study (PIOPED III). Ann Intern Med. 152(7):434-43, W142-3, 2010
                                                                                          13. Remy-Jardin M et al: Management of Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism in the Era of CT Angiography: A Statement from the Fleischner Society. Radiology. 245(2):315-329, 2007
                                                                                          14. Konstantinides S: Diagnosis and therapy of pulmonary embolism. Vasa. 35(3):135-46, 2006
                                                                                          15. Le Gal G et al: Contemporary approach to the diagnosis of non-massive pulmonary embolism. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 12(5):291-8, 2006
                                                                                          16. Schaefer-Prokop C et al: MDCT for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Radiol. 15 Suppl 4:D37-41, 2005
                                                                                          17. Wittram C et al: CT angiography of pulmonary embolism: diagnostic criteria and causes of misdiagnosis. Radiographics. 24(5):1219-38, 2004
                                                                                          18. Baron MG: Fleischner lines and pulmonary emboli. Circulation. 45(1):171-8, 1972