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ADEM
Lubdha M. Shah, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
            • Definitions

              • Para-/postinfectious immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of white matter

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Mohsen H et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following infectious mononucleosis in a toddler. BMJ Case Rep. 2013, 2013
                                            2. Verma R et al: Extensive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a young girl responding to intravenous methylprednisolone. BMJ Case Rep. 2013, 2013
                                            3. Daoud E et al: How MRI can contribute to the diagnosis of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis in children. Neurosciences (Riyadh). 16(2):137-45, 2011
                                            4. Harris MO et al: Is it ADEM, POLG, or both? Arch Neurol. 67(4):493-6, 2010
                                            5. Ketelslegers IA et al: A comparison of MRI criteria for diagnosing pediatric ADEM and MS. Neurology. 74(18):1412-5, 2010
                                            6. Callen DJ et al: Role of MRI in the differentiation of ADEM from MS in children. Neurology. 72(11):968-73, 2009
                                            7. Hagiwara H et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis developed after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection complicating subclinical measles infection. Intern Med. 48(6):479-83, 2009
                                            8. Panicker JN et al: Lower urinary tract dysfunction in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Mult Scler. 15(9):1118-22, 2009
                                            9. Rossi A: Imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(1):149-61; ix, 2008
                                            10. Balasubramanya KS et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the characterization of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neuroradiology. 49(2):177-83, 2007
                                            11. Khurana DS et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: discordant neurologic and neuroimaging abnormalities and response to plasmapheresis. Pediatrics. 116(2):431-6, 2005
                                            12. Dale RC: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 14(2):90-5, 2003
                                            13. Garg RK: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 79(927):11-7, 2003
                                            14. Idrissova ZhR et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: clinical features and HLA-DR linkage. Eur J Neurol. 10(5):537-46, 2003
                                            15. Miravalle A et al: Encephalitis complicating smallpox vaccination. Arch Neurol. 60(7):925-8, 2003
                                            16. Au WY et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after para-influenza infection post bone marrow transplantation. Leuk Lymphoma. 43(2):455-7, 2002
                                            17. Inglese M et al: Magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(2):267-72, 2002
                                            18. Murthy SN et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children. Pediatrics. 110(2 Pt 1):e21, 2002
                                            19. Arya SC: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with poliomyelitis vaccine. Pediatr Neurol. 24(4):325, 2001
                                            20. Bastianello S: Magnetic resonance imaging of MS-like disease. Neurol Sci. 22 Suppl 2:S103-7, 2001
                                            21. Lin WC et al: Sequential MR studies of a patient with white matter disease presenting psychotic symptoms: ADEM versus single-episode MS. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 17(3):161-6, 2001
                                            22. Miyazawa R et al: Plasmapheresis in fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Brain Dev. 23(6):424-6, 2001
                                            23. Singh S et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging differentiation. Australas Radiol. 44(4):404-11, 2000
                                            24. Tsuru T et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after live rubella vaccination. Brain Dev. 22(4):259-61, 2000
                                            25. Murthy JM et al: Clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging study of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 47(3):280-3, 1999
                                            26. Pradhan S et al: Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Sci. 165(1):56-61, 1999
                                            27. Murthy JM: MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Semple antirabies vaccine. Neuroradiology. 40(7):420-3, 1998
                                            28. Kumada S et al: Encephalomyelitis subsequent to mycoplasma infection with elevated serum anti-Gal C antibody. Pediatr Neurol. 16(3):241-4, 1997
                                            29. Patel SP et al: Neuropsychiatric features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a review. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 9(4):534-40, 1997
                                            30. Kinoshita A et al: Inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculitis in a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 60(1):87-90, 1996
                                            31. Kleiman M et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: response to intravenous immunoglobulin. J Child Neurol. 10(6):481-3, 1995
                                            32. Baum PA et al: Deep gray matter involvement in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(7):1275-83, 1994
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Para-/postinfectious immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of white matter

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Mohsen H et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following infectious mononucleosis in a toddler. BMJ Case Rep. 2013, 2013
                                                                                      2. Verma R et al: Extensive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a young girl responding to intravenous methylprednisolone. BMJ Case Rep. 2013, 2013
                                                                                      3. Daoud E et al: How MRI can contribute to the diagnosis of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis in children. Neurosciences (Riyadh). 16(2):137-45, 2011
                                                                                      4. Harris MO et al: Is it ADEM, POLG, or both? Arch Neurol. 67(4):493-6, 2010
                                                                                      5. Ketelslegers IA et al: A comparison of MRI criteria for diagnosing pediatric ADEM and MS. Neurology. 74(18):1412-5, 2010
                                                                                      6. Callen DJ et al: Role of MRI in the differentiation of ADEM from MS in children. Neurology. 72(11):968-73, 2009
                                                                                      7. Hagiwara H et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis developed after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection complicating subclinical measles infection. Intern Med. 48(6):479-83, 2009
                                                                                      8. Panicker JN et al: Lower urinary tract dysfunction in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Mult Scler. 15(9):1118-22, 2009
                                                                                      9. Rossi A: Imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(1):149-61; ix, 2008
                                                                                      10. Balasubramanya KS et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the characterization of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neuroradiology. 49(2):177-83, 2007
                                                                                      11. Khurana DS et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: discordant neurologic and neuroimaging abnormalities and response to plasmapheresis. Pediatrics. 116(2):431-6, 2005
                                                                                      12. Dale RC: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 14(2):90-5, 2003
                                                                                      13. Garg RK: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 79(927):11-7, 2003
                                                                                      14. Idrissova ZhR et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: clinical features and HLA-DR linkage. Eur J Neurol. 10(5):537-46, 2003
                                                                                      15. Miravalle A et al: Encephalitis complicating smallpox vaccination. Arch Neurol. 60(7):925-8, 2003
                                                                                      16. Au WY et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after para-influenza infection post bone marrow transplantation. Leuk Lymphoma. 43(2):455-7, 2002
                                                                                      17. Inglese M et al: Magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(2):267-72, 2002
                                                                                      18. Murthy SN et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children. Pediatrics. 110(2 Pt 1):e21, 2002
                                                                                      19. Arya SC: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with poliomyelitis vaccine. Pediatr Neurol. 24(4):325, 2001
                                                                                      20. Bastianello S: Magnetic resonance imaging of MS-like disease. Neurol Sci. 22 Suppl 2:S103-7, 2001
                                                                                      21. Lin WC et al: Sequential MR studies of a patient with white matter disease presenting psychotic symptoms: ADEM versus single-episode MS. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 17(3):161-6, 2001
                                                                                      22. Miyazawa R et al: Plasmapheresis in fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Brain Dev. 23(6):424-6, 2001
                                                                                      23. Singh S et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging differentiation. Australas Radiol. 44(4):404-11, 2000
                                                                                      24. Tsuru T et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after live rubella vaccination. Brain Dev. 22(4):259-61, 2000
                                                                                      25. Murthy JM et al: Clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging study of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 47(3):280-3, 1999
                                                                                      26. Pradhan S et al: Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Sci. 165(1):56-61, 1999
                                                                                      27. Murthy JM: MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Semple antirabies vaccine. Neuroradiology. 40(7):420-3, 1998
                                                                                      28. Kumada S et al: Encephalomyelitis subsequent to mycoplasma infection with elevated serum anti-Gal C antibody. Pediatr Neurol. 16(3):241-4, 1997
                                                                                      29. Patel SP et al: Neuropsychiatric features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a review. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 9(4):534-40, 1997
                                                                                      30. Kinoshita A et al: Inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculitis in a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 60(1):87-90, 1996
                                                                                      31. Kleiman M et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: response to intravenous immunoglobulin. J Child Neurol. 10(6):481-3, 1995
                                                                                      32. Baum PA et al: Deep gray matter involvement in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(7):1275-83, 1994