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ADEM
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD; Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
            • Definitions

              • Autoimmune-mediated white matter (WM) demyelination of brain &/or spinal cord, usually with remyelination

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Bester M et al: Neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and other demyelinating diseases. Semin Roentgenol. 49(1):76-85, 2014
                                        2. Kanekar S et al: A pattern approach to focal white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):241-61, 2014
                                        3. Karussis D: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and the various related demyelinating syndromes: a critical review. J Autoimmun. 48-49:134-42, 2014
                                        4. Tenembaum SN: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Handb Clin Neurol. 112:1253-62, 2013
                                        5. Wingerchuk DM et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and neuromyelitis optica. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):944-67, 2013
                                        6. Callen DJ et al: Role of MRI in the differentiation of ADEM from MS in children. Neurology. 72(11):968-73, 2009
                                        7. Noorbakhsh F et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: clinical and pathogenesis features. Neurol Clin. 26(3):759-80, ix, 2008
                                        8. Rossi A: Imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(1):149-61; ix, 2008
                                        9. Tenembaum S et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology. 68(16 Suppl 2):S23-36, 2007
                                        10. Menge T et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an update. Arch Neurol. 62(11):1673-80, 2005
                                        11. Yeh EA et al: Detection of coronavirus in the central nervous system of a child with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatrics. 113(1 Pt 1):e73-6, 2004
                                        12. Dale RC: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 14(2):90-5, 2003
                                        13. Garg RK: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 79(927):11-7, 2003
                                        14. Idrissova ZhR et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: clinical features and HLA-DR linkage. Eur J Neurol. 10(5):537-46, 2003
                                        15. Okamoto K et al: MR features of diseases involving bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(10):1946-54, 2003
                                        16. Sener RN: Neuro-Behcet's disease: diffusion MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(8):1612-4, 2003
                                        17. Stonehouse M et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: recognition in the hands of general paediatricians. Arch Dis Child. 88(2):122-4, 2003
                                        18. Inglese M et al: Magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(2):267-72, 2002
                                        19. Murthy JM: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurol India. 50(3):238-43, 2002
                                        20. Tenembaum S et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a long-term follow-up study of 84 pediatric patients. Neurology. 59(8):1224-31, 2002
                                        21. Bizzi A et al: Quantitative proton MR spectroscopic imaging in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(6):1125-30, 2001
                                        22. Honkaniemi J et al: Delayed MR imaging changes in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(6):1117-24, 2001
                                        23. Straussberg R et al: Improvement of atypical acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Pediatr Neurol. 24(2):139-43, 2001
                                        24. Dale RC et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. Brain. 123 Pt 12:2407-22, 2000
                                        25. Rust RS: Multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and related conditions. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 7(2):66-90, 2000
                                        26. Schaefer PW et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain. Radiology. 217(2):331-45, 2000
                                        27. Kocer N et al: CNS involvement in neuro-Behcet syndrome: an MR study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(6):1015-24, 1999
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Autoimmune-mediated white matter (WM) demyelination of brain &/or spinal cord, usually with remyelination

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Bester M et al: Neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and other demyelinating diseases. Semin Roentgenol. 49(1):76-85, 2014
                                                                              2. Kanekar S et al: A pattern approach to focal white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):241-61, 2014
                                                                              3. Karussis D: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and the various related demyelinating syndromes: a critical review. J Autoimmun. 48-49:134-42, 2014
                                                                              4. Tenembaum SN: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Handb Clin Neurol. 112:1253-62, 2013
                                                                              5. Wingerchuk DM et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and neuromyelitis optica. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):944-67, 2013
                                                                              6. Callen DJ et al: Role of MRI in the differentiation of ADEM from MS in children. Neurology. 72(11):968-73, 2009
                                                                              7. Noorbakhsh F et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: clinical and pathogenesis features. Neurol Clin. 26(3):759-80, ix, 2008
                                                                              8. Rossi A: Imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 18(1):149-61; ix, 2008
                                                                              9. Tenembaum S et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology. 68(16 Suppl 2):S23-36, 2007
                                                                              10. Menge T et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an update. Arch Neurol. 62(11):1673-80, 2005
                                                                              11. Yeh EA et al: Detection of coronavirus in the central nervous system of a child with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatrics. 113(1 Pt 1):e73-6, 2004
                                                                              12. Dale RC: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 14(2):90-5, 2003
                                                                              13. Garg RK: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Postgrad Med J. 79(927):11-7, 2003
                                                                              14. Idrissova ZhR et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: clinical features and HLA-DR linkage. Eur J Neurol. 10(5):537-46, 2003
                                                                              15. Okamoto K et al: MR features of diseases involving bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(10):1946-54, 2003
                                                                              16. Sener RN: Neuro-Behcet's disease: diffusion MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(8):1612-4, 2003
                                                                              17. Stonehouse M et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: recognition in the hands of general paediatricians. Arch Dis Child. 88(2):122-4, 2003
                                                                              18. Inglese M et al: Magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(2):267-72, 2002
                                                                              19. Murthy JM: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurol India. 50(3):238-43, 2002
                                                                              20. Tenembaum S et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a long-term follow-up study of 84 pediatric patients. Neurology. 59(8):1224-31, 2002
                                                                              21. Bizzi A et al: Quantitative proton MR spectroscopic imaging in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(6):1125-30, 2001
                                                                              22. Honkaniemi J et al: Delayed MR imaging changes in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(6):1117-24, 2001
                                                                              23. Straussberg R et al: Improvement of atypical acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Pediatr Neurol. 24(2):139-43, 2001
                                                                              24. Dale RC et al: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. Brain. 123 Pt 12:2407-22, 2000
                                                                              25. Rust RS: Multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and related conditions. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 7(2):66-90, 2000
                                                                              26. Schaefer PW et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain. Radiology. 217(2):331-45, 2000
                                                                              27. Kocer N et al: CNS involvement in neuro-Behcet syndrome: an MR study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(6):1015-24, 1999