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Adrenal Adenoma
Mitchell Tublin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Benign adrenal cortical tumor

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Corwin MT et al: Differences in growth rate on CT of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 213(3):632-6, 2019
                                          2. Elbanan MG et al: Adrenal cortical adenoma: current update, imaging features, atypical findings, and mimics. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2019
                                          3. Hekimsoy İ et al: Characterization of adrenal lesions on chemical shift MRI: comparison of 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(10):3359-69, 2019
                                          4. Liu T et al: Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas with multidetector CT: evaluation of percentage washout values at a short time delay triphasic enhanced CT. Br J Radiol. 92(1094):20180429, 2019
                                          5. Platzek I et al: Chemical shift imaging for evaluation of adrenal masses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 29(2):806-17, 2019
                                          6. Humbert AL et al: The computed tomography adrenal wash-out analysis properly classifies cortisol secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Endocrine. 59(3):529-37, 2018
                                          7. Mohammed MF et al: Pheochromocytomas versus adenoma: role of venous phase CT enhancement. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 210(5):1073-8, 2018
                                          8. Rocha TO et al: Histogram analysis of adrenal lesions with a single measurement for 10th percentile: feasibility and incremental value for diagnosing adenomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 211(6):1227-33, 2018
                                          9. Thomas AJ et al: Interobserver agreement in distinguishing large adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas on computed tomography. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(11):3101-8, 2018
                                          10. Tu W et al: Can adrenal adenomas be differentiated from adrenal metastases at single-phase contrast-enhanced CT? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 211(5):1044-50, 2018
                                          11. Woo S et al: Pheochromocytoma as a frequent false-positive in adrenal washout CT: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 28(3):1027-36, 2018
                                          12. Mosconi C et al: Can imaging predict subclinical cortisol secretion in patients with adrenal adenomas? A CT predictive score. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(1):122-9, 2017
                                          13. Schieda N et al: Update on CT and MRI of adrenal nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1-12, 2017
                                          14. Wagner-Bartak NA et al: Cushing syndrome: diagnostic workup and imaging features, with clinical and pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(1):19-32, 2017
                                          15. Warda MH et al: Chemical-shift MRI versus washout CT for characterizing adrenal incidentalomas. Clin Imaging. 40(4):780-7, 2016
                                          16. Mileto A et al: Dual-energy multidetector CT for the characterization of incidental adrenal nodules: diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced material density analysis. Radiology. 274(2):445-54, 2015
                                          17. Koo HJ et al: The value of 15-minute delayed contrast-enhanced CT to differentiate hyperattenuating adrenal masses compared with chemical shift MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 24(6):1410-20, 2014
                                          18. Lattin GE Jr et al: From the radiologic pathology archives: adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in the adult: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 34(3):805-29, 2014
                                          19. Sebro R et al: Low yield of chemical shift MRI for characterization of adrenal lesions with high attenuation density on unenhanced CT. Abdom Imaging. 40(2):318-26 2014
                                          20. Seo JM et al: Characterization of lipid-poor adrenal adenoma: chemical-shift MRI and washout CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(5):1043-50, 2014
                                          21. Kim YK et al: Adenoma characterization: adrenal protocol with dual-energy CT. Radiology. 267(1):155-63, 2013
                                          22. Northcutt BG et al: MDCT of adrenal masses: can dual-phase enhancement patterns be used to differentiate adenoma and pheochromocytoma? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):834-9, 2013
                                          23. Nakamura S et al: Characterization of adrenal lesions using chemical shift MRI: comparison between 1.5 Tesla and two echo time pair selection at 3.0 Tesla MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 35(1):95-102, 2012
                                          24. Blake MA et al: Adrenal imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(6):1450-60, 2010
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Benign adrenal cortical tumor

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Corwin MT et al: Differences in growth rate on CT of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 213(3):632-6, 2019
                                                                                  2. Elbanan MG et al: Adrenal cortical adenoma: current update, imaging features, atypical findings, and mimics. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2019
                                                                                  3. Hekimsoy İ et al: Characterization of adrenal lesions on chemical shift MRI: comparison of 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(10):3359-69, 2019
                                                                                  4. Liu T et al: Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas with multidetector CT: evaluation of percentage washout values at a short time delay triphasic enhanced CT. Br J Radiol. 92(1094):20180429, 2019
                                                                                  5. Platzek I et al: Chemical shift imaging for evaluation of adrenal masses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 29(2):806-17, 2019
                                                                                  6. Humbert AL et al: The computed tomography adrenal wash-out analysis properly classifies cortisol secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Endocrine. 59(3):529-37, 2018
                                                                                  7. Mohammed MF et al: Pheochromocytomas versus adenoma: role of venous phase CT enhancement. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 210(5):1073-8, 2018
                                                                                  8. Rocha TO et al: Histogram analysis of adrenal lesions with a single measurement for 10th percentile: feasibility and incremental value for diagnosing adenomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 211(6):1227-33, 2018
                                                                                  9. Thomas AJ et al: Interobserver agreement in distinguishing large adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas on computed tomography. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(11):3101-8, 2018
                                                                                  10. Tu W et al: Can adrenal adenomas be differentiated from adrenal metastases at single-phase contrast-enhanced CT? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 211(5):1044-50, 2018
                                                                                  11. Woo S et al: Pheochromocytoma as a frequent false-positive in adrenal washout CT: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 28(3):1027-36, 2018
                                                                                  12. Mosconi C et al: Can imaging predict subclinical cortisol secretion in patients with adrenal adenomas? A CT predictive score. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(1):122-9, 2017
                                                                                  13. Schieda N et al: Update on CT and MRI of adrenal nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1-12, 2017
                                                                                  14. Wagner-Bartak NA et al: Cushing syndrome: diagnostic workup and imaging features, with clinical and pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(1):19-32, 2017
                                                                                  15. Warda MH et al: Chemical-shift MRI versus washout CT for characterizing adrenal incidentalomas. Clin Imaging. 40(4):780-7, 2016
                                                                                  16. Mileto A et al: Dual-energy multidetector CT for the characterization of incidental adrenal nodules: diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced material density analysis. Radiology. 274(2):445-54, 2015
                                                                                  17. Koo HJ et al: The value of 15-minute delayed contrast-enhanced CT to differentiate hyperattenuating adrenal masses compared with chemical shift MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 24(6):1410-20, 2014
                                                                                  18. Lattin GE Jr et al: From the radiologic pathology archives: adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in the adult: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 34(3):805-29, 2014
                                                                                  19. Sebro R et al: Low yield of chemical shift MRI for characterization of adrenal lesions with high attenuation density on unenhanced CT. Abdom Imaging. 40(2):318-26 2014
                                                                                  20. Seo JM et al: Characterization of lipid-poor adrenal adenoma: chemical-shift MRI and washout CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(5):1043-50, 2014
                                                                                  21. Kim YK et al: Adenoma characterization: adrenal protocol with dual-energy CT. Radiology. 267(1):155-63, 2013
                                                                                  22. Northcutt BG et al: MDCT of adrenal masses: can dual-phase enhancement patterns be used to differentiate adenoma and pheochromocytoma? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):834-9, 2013
                                                                                  23. Nakamura S et al: Characterization of adrenal lesions using chemical shift MRI: comparison between 1.5 Tesla and two echo time pair selection at 3.0 Tesla MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 35(1):95-102, 2012
                                                                                  24. Blake MA et al: Adrenal imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(6):1450-60, 2010