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Adrenal Carcinoma
Mitchell Tublin, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Adrenocortical carcinoma, adrenal cancer
        • Definitions

          • Malignant growth from 1 adrenal cell line

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Fassnacht M et al: Update in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(12):4551-64, 2013
                                            2. Bharwani N et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: the range of appearances on CT and MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):W706-14, 2011
                                            3. Bilimoria KY et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer. 113(11):3130-6, 2008
                                            4. Allolio B et al: Clinical review: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(6):2027-37, 2006
                                            5. Slattery JM, Blake MA, Kalra MK, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma: washout characteristics on CT. Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:W21–4
                                            6. Szolar DH et al: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology. 234(2):479-85, 2005
                                            7. Ng L et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: diagnosis, evaluation and treatment. J Urol. 169(1):5-11, 2003
                                            8. Caoili EM et al: Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT. Radiology. 222(3):629-33, 2002
                                            9. Dunnick NR et al: Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(3):559-68, 2002
                                            10. Dunnick NR: Adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(5):1344, 2002
                                            11. Mayo-Smith WW et al: State-of-the-art adrenal imaging. Radiographics. 21(4):995-1012, 2001
                                            12. Siegelman ES: MR imaging of the adrenal neoplasms. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(4):769-86, 2000
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Adrenocortical carcinoma, adrenal cancer
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Malignant growth from 1 adrenal cell line

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Fassnacht M et al: Update in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(12):4551-64, 2013
                                                                                      2. Bharwani N et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: the range of appearances on CT and MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):W706-14, 2011
                                                                                      3. Bilimoria KY et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer. 113(11):3130-6, 2008
                                                                                      4. Allolio B et al: Clinical review: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(6):2027-37, 2006
                                                                                      5. Slattery JM, Blake MA, Kalra MK, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma: washout characteristics on CT. Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:W21–4
                                                                                      6. Szolar DH et al: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology. 234(2):479-85, 2005
                                                                                      7. Ng L et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: diagnosis, evaluation and treatment. J Urol. 169(1):5-11, 2003
                                                                                      8. Caoili EM et al: Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT. Radiology. 222(3):629-33, 2002
                                                                                      9. Dunnick NR et al: Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(3):559-68, 2002
                                                                                      10. Dunnick NR: Adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(5):1344, 2002
                                                                                      11. Mayo-Smith WW et al: State-of-the-art adrenal imaging. Radiographics. 21(4):995-1012, 2001
                                                                                      12. Siegelman ES: MR imaging of the adrenal neoplasms. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(4):769-86, 2000