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Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma
Akram M. Shaaban, MBBCh
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7

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. Dickson PV et al: Evaluation, staging, and surgical management for adrenocortical carcinoma: an update from the SSO Endocrine and Head and Neck Disease Site Working Group. Ann Surg Oncol. 25(12):3460-8, 2018
                                2. Mpaili E et al: Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for localized/locally advanced primary adrenocortical carcinoma (ENSAT I-III) in adults: is margin-free resection the key surgical factor that dictates outcome? a review of the literature. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 28(4):408-14, 2018
                                3. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                4. Elsayes KM et al: Practical approach to adrenal imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 55(2):279-301, 2017
                                5. Shaaban AM et al: Fat-containing retroperitoneal lesions: imaging characteristics, localization, and differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 36(3):710-34, 2016
                                6. Wong KK et al: Molecular imaging in the management of adrenocortical cancer: a systematic review. Clin Nucl Med. 41(8):e368-82, 2016
                                7. Bharwani N et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: the range of appearances on CT and MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):W706-14, 2011
                                8. Bauditz J et al: Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Oncol Rep. 19(5):1135-9, 2008
                                9. Bilimoria KY et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer. 113(11):3130-6, 2008
                                10. Fareau GG et al: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract. 13(6):636-41, 2007
                                11. Leboulleux S et al: Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(3):920-5, 2006
                                12. Mackie GC et al: Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(7):2665-71, 2006
                                13. Szolar DH et al: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology. 234(2):479-85, 2005
                                14. Elsayes KM et al: Adrenal masses: mr imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 24 Suppl 1:S73-86, 2004
                                15. Aubert S et al: Weiss system revisited: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 49 adrenocortical tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 26(12):1612-9, 2002
                                16. Lockhart ME et al: Imaging of adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol. 41(2):95-112, 2002
                                17. Schlund JF et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: MR imaging appearance with current techniques. J Magn Reson Imaging. 5(2):171-4, 1995
                                18. Dintenfass L: Blood-pressure and blood viscosity in coronary heart-disease. Lancet. 2(8097):993-4, 1978
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes of Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Dickson PV et al: Evaluation, staging, and surgical management for adrenocortical carcinoma: an update from the SSO Endocrine and Head and Neck Disease Site Working Group. Ann Surg Oncol. 25(12):3460-8, 2018
                                                              2. Mpaili E et al: Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for localized/locally advanced primary adrenocortical carcinoma (ENSAT I-III) in adults: is margin-free resection the key surgical factor that dictates outcome? a review of the literature. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 28(4):408-14, 2018
                                                              3. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                              4. Elsayes KM et al: Practical approach to adrenal imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 55(2):279-301, 2017
                                                              5. Shaaban AM et al: Fat-containing retroperitoneal lesions: imaging characteristics, localization, and differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 36(3):710-34, 2016
                                                              6. Wong KK et al: Molecular imaging in the management of adrenocortical cancer: a systematic review. Clin Nucl Med. 41(8):e368-82, 2016
                                                              7. Bharwani N et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: the range of appearances on CT and MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):W706-14, 2011
                                                              8. Bauditz J et al: Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Oncol Rep. 19(5):1135-9, 2008
                                                              9. Bilimoria KY et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer. 113(11):3130-6, 2008
                                                              10. Fareau GG et al: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract. 13(6):636-41, 2007
                                                              11. Leboulleux S et al: Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(3):920-5, 2006
                                                              12. Mackie GC et al: Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(7):2665-71, 2006
                                                              13. Szolar DH et al: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology. 234(2):479-85, 2005
                                                              14. Elsayes KM et al: Adrenal masses: mr imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 24 Suppl 1:S73-86, 2004
                                                              15. Aubert S et al: Weiss system revisited: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 49 adrenocortical tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 26(12):1612-9, 2002
                                                              16. Lockhart ME et al: Imaging of adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol. 41(2):95-112, 2002
                                                              17. Schlund JF et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma: MR imaging appearance with current techniques. J Magn Reson Imaging. 5(2):171-4, 1995
                                                              18. Dintenfass L: Blood-pressure and blood viscosity in coronary heart-disease. Lancet. 2(8097):993-4, 1978