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Adrenal Hemorrhage
Anne Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Hemorrhage within adrenal gland

              IMAGING

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Schwab ME et al: Imaging modalities and management of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal masses: an updated literature review and the experience at a high volume fetal treatment center. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-8, 2020
                                    2. Smitthimedhin A et al: Normal size of the fetal adrenal gland on prenatal magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 50(6):840-7, 2020
                                    3. Wang L et al: Clinical value of serial ultrasonography in the dynamic observation of foetal cystic adrenal lesions. Prenat Diagn. 38(11):829-34, 2018
                                    4. Flanagan SM et al: Fetal suprarenal masses--assessing the complementary role of magnetic resonance and ultrasound for diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol. 46(2):246-54, 2016
                                    5. McAdams RM et al: Umbilical cord haematoma and adrenal haemorrhage in a macrosomic neonate with anaemia. BMJ Case Rep. 2016, 2016
                                    6. Gyurkovits Z et al: Adrenal haemorrhage in term neonates: a retrospective study from the period 2001-2013. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2014
                                    7. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                    8. Ruffini E et al: Two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice. Pediatr Med Chir. 35(6):285-7, 2013
                                    9. Calisti A et al: Neonatal adrenal masses: do we have reliable criteria for differential diagnosis and expectant management? Minerva Pediatr. 64(3):313-8, 2012
                                    10. Akin MA et al: Intrahepatic and adrenal hemorrhage as a rare cause of neonatal anemia. J Perinat Med. 39(3):353-4, 2011
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Hemorrhage within adrenal gland

                                                IMAGING

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Schwab ME et al: Imaging modalities and management of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal masses: an updated literature review and the experience at a high volume fetal treatment center. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-8, 2020
                                                                      2. Smitthimedhin A et al: Normal size of the fetal adrenal gland on prenatal magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 50(6):840-7, 2020
                                                                      3. Wang L et al: Clinical value of serial ultrasonography in the dynamic observation of foetal cystic adrenal lesions. Prenat Diagn. 38(11):829-34, 2018
                                                                      4. Flanagan SM et al: Fetal suprarenal masses--assessing the complementary role of magnetic resonance and ultrasound for diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol. 46(2):246-54, 2016
                                                                      5. McAdams RM et al: Umbilical cord haematoma and adrenal haemorrhage in a macrosomic neonate with anaemia. BMJ Case Rep. 2016, 2016
                                                                      6. Gyurkovits Z et al: Adrenal haemorrhage in term neonates: a retrospective study from the period 2001-2013. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2014
                                                                      7. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                                                      8. Ruffini E et al: Two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice. Pediatr Med Chir. 35(6):285-7, 2013
                                                                      9. Calisti A et al: Neonatal adrenal masses: do we have reliable criteria for differential diagnosis and expectant management? Minerva Pediatr. 64(3):313-8, 2012
                                                                      10. Akin MA et al: Intrahepatic and adrenal hemorrhage as a rare cause of neonatal anemia. J Perinat Med. 39(3):353-4, 2011