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Adrenal Hemorrhage
Anne M. Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Hemorrhage within adrenal gland

              IMAGING

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Gyurkovits Z et al: Adrenal haemorrhage in term neonates: a retrospective study from the period 2001-2013. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2014
                                    2. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                    3. Ruffini E et al: Two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice. Pediatr Med Chir. 35(6):285-7, 2013
                                    4. Calisti A et al: Neonatal adrenal masses: do we have reliable criteria for differential diagnosis and expectant management? Minerva Pediatr. 64(3):313-8, 2012
                                    5. Akin MA et al: Intrahepatic and adrenal hemorrhage as a rare cause of neonatal anemia. J Perinat Med. 39(3):353-4, 2011
                                    6. Bussel JB et al: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: progress and ongoing debates. Blood Rev. 22(1):33-52, 2008
                                    7. Schrauder MG et al: Fetal adrenal haemorrhage—two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging. Fetal Diagn Ther. 23(1):72-5, 2008
                                    8. Gocmen R et al: Bilateral hemorrhagic adrenal cysts in an incomplete form of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: MRI and prenatal US findings. Abdom Imaging. 30(6):786-9, 2005
                                    9. de Luca JL et al: Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma with large prenatally detected cystic adrenal masses. Fetal Diagn Ther. 17(1):11-6, 2002
                                    10. Rahman S et al: Fetal adrenal hemorrhage in a diamniotic, dichorionic twin: case report and review of controversies in diagnosis and management. J Ultrasound Med. 16(4):297-300, 1997
                                    11. Vollersen E et al: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of fetal adrenal gland hemorrhage. Fetal Diagn Ther. 11(4):286-91, 1996
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Hemorrhage within adrenal gland

                                                IMAGING

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Gyurkovits Z et al: Adrenal haemorrhage in term neonates: a retrospective study from the period 2001-2013. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-4, 2014
                                                                      2. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                                                      3. Ruffini E et al: Two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice. Pediatr Med Chir. 35(6):285-7, 2013
                                                                      4. Calisti A et al: Neonatal adrenal masses: do we have reliable criteria for differential diagnosis and expectant management? Minerva Pediatr. 64(3):313-8, 2012
                                                                      5. Akin MA et al: Intrahepatic and adrenal hemorrhage as a rare cause of neonatal anemia. J Perinat Med. 39(3):353-4, 2011
                                                                      6. Bussel JB et al: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: progress and ongoing debates. Blood Rev. 22(1):33-52, 2008
                                                                      7. Schrauder MG et al: Fetal adrenal haemorrhage—two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging. Fetal Diagn Ther. 23(1):72-5, 2008
                                                                      8. Gocmen R et al: Bilateral hemorrhagic adrenal cysts in an incomplete form of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: MRI and prenatal US findings. Abdom Imaging. 30(6):786-9, 2005
                                                                      9. de Luca JL et al: Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma with large prenatally detected cystic adrenal masses. Fetal Diagn Ther. 17(1):11-6, 2002
                                                                      10. Rahman S et al: Fetal adrenal hemorrhage in a diamniotic, dichorionic twin: case report and review of controversies in diagnosis and management. J Ultrasound Med. 16(4):297-300, 1997
                                                                      11. Vollersen E et al: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of fetal adrenal gland hemorrhage. Fetal Diagn Ther. 11(4):286-91, 1996