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Adrenal Hyperplasia
Mitchell Tublin, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Bilateral adrenal gland hyperfunction ± enlargement

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Auchus RJ et al: Approach to the patient: the adult with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(7):2645-55, 2013
                                      2. Sookur PA et al: Imaging in covert ectopic ACTH secretion: a CT pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 19(5):1069-78, 2009
                                      3. Brunaud L et al: Prospective evaluation of 100 robotic-assisted unilateral adrenalectomies. Surgery. 144(6):995-1001; discussion 1001, 2008
                                      4. Gleeson HK et al: Two-year pilot study of newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in New South Wales compared with nationwide case surveillance in Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 44(10):554-9, 2008
                                      5. Sahdev A et al: Imaging in Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 51(8):1319-28, 2007
                                      6. Imaki T et al: Adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome: comparison of the size of adrenal glands with clinical and endocrinological data. Endocr J. 51(1):89-95, 2004
                                      7. Rockall AG et al: CT and MR imaging of the adrenal glands in ACTH-independent cushing syndrome. Radiographics. 24(2):435-52, 2004
                                      8. Speiser PW et al: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. N Engl J Med. 349(8):776-88, 2003
                                      9. Caoili EM et al: Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT. Radiology. 222(3):629-33, 2002
                                      10. Mayo-Smith WW et al: State-of-the-art adrenal imaging. Radiographics. 21(4):995-1012, 2001
                                      11. Doppman JL et al: Adrenocorticotropin-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia: an uncommon cause of primary adrenal hypercortisolism. Radiology. 216(3):797-802, 2000
                                      12. Sohaib SA et al: CT appearance of the adrenal glands in adrenocorticotrophic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(4):997-1002, 1999
                                      13. Kawashima A et al: Spectrum of CT findings in nonmalignant disease of the adrenal gland. Radiographics. 18(2):393-412, 1998
                                      14. Krebs TL et al: MR imaging of the adrenal gland: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 18(6):1425-40, 1998
                                      15. Doppman JL et al: Cushing syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease: findings at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 172(2):415-20, 1989
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Bilateral adrenal gland hyperfunction ± enlargement

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Auchus RJ et al: Approach to the patient: the adult with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(7):2645-55, 2013
                                                                          2. Sookur PA et al: Imaging in covert ectopic ACTH secretion: a CT pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 19(5):1069-78, 2009
                                                                          3. Brunaud L et al: Prospective evaluation of 100 robotic-assisted unilateral adrenalectomies. Surgery. 144(6):995-1001; discussion 1001, 2008
                                                                          4. Gleeson HK et al: Two-year pilot study of newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in New South Wales compared with nationwide case surveillance in Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 44(10):554-9, 2008
                                                                          5. Sahdev A et al: Imaging in Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 51(8):1319-28, 2007
                                                                          6. Imaki T et al: Adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome: comparison of the size of adrenal glands with clinical and endocrinological data. Endocr J. 51(1):89-95, 2004
                                                                          7. Rockall AG et al: CT and MR imaging of the adrenal glands in ACTH-independent cushing syndrome. Radiographics. 24(2):435-52, 2004
                                                                          8. Speiser PW et al: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. N Engl J Med. 349(8):776-88, 2003
                                                                          9. Caoili EM et al: Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT. Radiology. 222(3):629-33, 2002
                                                                          10. Mayo-Smith WW et al: State-of-the-art adrenal imaging. Radiographics. 21(4):995-1012, 2001
                                                                          11. Doppman JL et al: Adrenocorticotropin-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia: an uncommon cause of primary adrenal hypercortisolism. Radiology. 216(3):797-802, 2000
                                                                          12. Sohaib SA et al: CT appearance of the adrenal glands in adrenocorticotrophic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(4):997-1002, 1999
                                                                          13. Kawashima A et al: Spectrum of CT findings in nonmalignant disease of the adrenal gland. Radiographics. 18(2):393-412, 1998
                                                                          14. Krebs TL et al: MR imaging of the adrenal gland: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 18(6):1425-40, 1998
                                                                          15. Doppman JL et al: Cushing syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease: findings at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 172(2):415-20, 1989