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Adult Hypoxic Ischemic Injury
Karen L. Salzman, MD; Lubdha M. Shah, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Hypoxic ischemic injury (HII), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)
          • Definitions

            • Includes various etiologies of injury: Global hypoxic ischemic injury, global anoxic injury, cerebral hypoperfusion injury

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment

                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                              • Reporting Tips

                                Selected References

                                1. Tekes A et al: Apparent diffusion coefficient scalars correlate with near-infrared spectroscopy markers of cerebrovascular autoregulation in neonates cooled for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(1):188-93, 2015
                                2. Ghei SK et al: MR imaging of hypoxic-ischemic injury in term neonates: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 34(4):1047-61, 2014
                                3. Muttikkal TJ et al: MRI patterns of global hypoxic-ischemic injury in adults. J Neuroradiol. 40(3):164-71, 2013
                                4. White ML et al: Anatomical patterns and correlated MRI findings of non-perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Br J Radiol. 86(1021):20120464, 2013
                                5. Wu O et al: Comatose patients with cardiac arrest: predicting clinical outcome with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Radiology. 252(1):173-81, 2009
                                6. Huang BY et al: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: imaging findings from birth to adulthood. Radiographics. 28(2):417-39; quiz 617, 2008
                                7. Grant PE et al: Acute injury to the immature brain with hypoxia with or without hypoperfusion. Radiol Clin North Am. 44(1):63-77, viii, 2006
                                8. Schaefer P. Stroke and cerebral ischemia. In Edelman R: Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. 1454–98, 2006
                                9. van Pul C et al: Selecting the best index for following the temporal evolution of apparent diffusion coefficient and diffusion anisotropy after hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury in neonates. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(3):469-81, 2005
                                10. Mutlu H et al: Cranial MR imaging findings of potassium chlorate intoxication. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(7):1396-8, 2003
                                11. Dijkhuizen RM et al: Dynamics of cerebral tissue injury and perfusion after temporary hypoxia-ischemia in the rat: evidence for region-specific sensitivity and delayed damage. Stroke. 29(3):695-704, 1998
                                12. Hantson P et al: Neurotoxicity to the basal ganglia shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following poisoning by methanol and other substances. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 35(2):151-61, 1997
                                13. Yager JY et al: The effect of age on susceptibility to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 21(2):167-74, 1997
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Pathology

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Hypoxic ischemic injury (HII), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Includes various etiologies of injury: Global hypoxic ischemic injury, global anoxic injury, cerebral hypoperfusion injury

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • CT Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Presentation

                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                        • Treatment

                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Tekes A et al: Apparent diffusion coefficient scalars correlate with near-infrared spectroscopy markers of cerebrovascular autoregulation in neonates cooled for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(1):188-93, 2015
                                                              2. Ghei SK et al: MR imaging of hypoxic-ischemic injury in term neonates: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 34(4):1047-61, 2014
                                                              3. Muttikkal TJ et al: MRI patterns of global hypoxic-ischemic injury in adults. J Neuroradiol. 40(3):164-71, 2013
                                                              4. White ML et al: Anatomical patterns and correlated MRI findings of non-perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Br J Radiol. 86(1021):20120464, 2013
                                                              5. Wu O et al: Comatose patients with cardiac arrest: predicting clinical outcome with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Radiology. 252(1):173-81, 2009
                                                              6. Huang BY et al: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: imaging findings from birth to adulthood. Radiographics. 28(2):417-39; quiz 617, 2008
                                                              7. Grant PE et al: Acute injury to the immature brain with hypoxia with or without hypoperfusion. Radiol Clin North Am. 44(1):63-77, viii, 2006
                                                              8. Schaefer P. Stroke and cerebral ischemia. In Edelman R: Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. 1454–98, 2006
                                                              9. van Pul C et al: Selecting the best index for following the temporal evolution of apparent diffusion coefficient and diffusion anisotropy after hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury in neonates. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(3):469-81, 2005
                                                              10. Mutlu H et al: Cranial MR imaging findings of potassium chlorate intoxication. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(7):1396-8, 2003
                                                              11. Dijkhuizen RM et al: Dynamics of cerebral tissue injury and perfusion after temporary hypoxia-ischemia in the rat: evidence for region-specific sensitivity and delayed damage. Stroke. 29(3):695-704, 1998
                                                              12. Hantson P et al: Neurotoxicity to the basal ganglia shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following poisoning by methanol and other substances. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 35(2):151-61, 1997
                                                              13. Yager JY et al: The effect of age on susceptibility to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 21(2):167-74, 1997