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Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Gyllenhammar T et al: Young patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but not subjects at risk, show decreased myocardial perfusion reserve quantified with CMR. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2014
                                          2. Ichida F: Cardiovascular events in pregnancy with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ J. ePub, 2014
                                          3. Yurube T et al: Accelerated development of cervical spine instabilities in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective minimum 5-year cohort study. PLoS One. 9(2):e88970, 2014
                                          4. Maron BJ et al: The 25-year genetic era in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: revisited. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 7(4):401-4, 2014
                                          5. Choy E: Understanding the dynamics: pathways involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 51 Suppl 5:v3-v11, 2012
                                          6. Landi A et al: Pannus regression after posterior decompression and occipito-cervical fixation in occipito-atlanto-axial instability due to rheumatoid arthritis: Case report and literature review. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. Epub ahead of print, 2012
                                          7. van Vollenhoven RF et al: Conventional combination treatment versus biological treatment in methotrexate-refractory early rheumatoid arthritis: 2 year follow-up of the randomised, non-blinded, parallel-group Swefot trial. Lancet. 379(9827):1712-20, 2012
                                          8. Kwong Y et al: Craniometric measurements in the assessment of craniovertebral settling: are they still relevant in the age of cross-sectional imaging? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(4):W421-5, 2011
                                          9. Myasoedova E et al: Lipid paradox in rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of serum lipid measures and systemic inflammation on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 70(3):482-7, 2011
                                          10. Saevarsdottir S et al: Predictors of response to methotrexate in early DMARD naive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the initial open-label phase of the SWEFOT trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 70(3):469-75, 2011
                                          11. Aletaha D et al: 2010 Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheum. 62(9):2569-81, 2010
                                          12. Krauss WE et al: Rheumatoid arthritis of the craniovertebral junction. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):83-95, 2010
                                          13. Wolfs JF et al: Neurologic outcome of surgical and conservative treatment of rheumatoid cervical spine subluxation: a systematic review. Arthritis Rheum. 61(12):1743-52, 2009
                                          14. Goel A et al: Immediate postoperative regression of retroodontoid pannus after lateral mass reconstruction in a patient with rheumatoid disease of the craniovertebral junction. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 9(3):273-6, 2008
                                          15. Kim DH et al: Rheumatoid arthritis in the cervical spine. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 13(7):463-74, 2005
                                          16. Shen FH et al: Rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation and surgical management of the cervical spine. Spine J. 4(6):689-700, 2004
                                          17. Neva MH et al: Early and extensive erosiveness in peripheral joints predicts atlantoaxial subluxations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 48(7):1808-13, 2003
                                          18. Roche CJ et al: The rheumatoid cervical spine: signs of instability on plain cervical radiographs. Clin Radiol. 57(4):241-9, 2002
                                          19. Riew KD et al: Diagnosing basilar invagination in the rheumatoid patient. The reliability of radiographic criteria. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(2):194-200, 2001
                                          20. Riise T et al: High mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and atlantoaxial subluxation. J Rheumatol. 28(11):2425-9, 2001
                                          21. Janssen H et al: MR imaging of arthritides of the cervical spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(3):491-512, 2000
                                          22. Neva MH et al: Prevalence of radiological changes in the cervical spine--a cross sectional study after 20 years from presentation of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 27(1):90-3, 2000
                                          23. Puttlitz CM et al: Biomechanical rationale for the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis in the craniovertebral junction. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 25(13):1607-16, 2000
                                          24. Zoli A et al: Craniocervical junction involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: a clinical and radiological study. J Rheumatol. 27(5):1178-82, 2000
                                          25. El-Khoury GY et al: Cranial settling in rheumatoid arthritis. Radiology. 137(3):637-42, 1980
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Gyllenhammar T et al: Young patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but not subjects at risk, show decreased myocardial perfusion reserve quantified with CMR. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2014
                                                                                  2. Ichida F: Cardiovascular events in pregnancy with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ J. ePub, 2014
                                                                                  3. Yurube T et al: Accelerated development of cervical spine instabilities in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective minimum 5-year cohort study. PLoS One. 9(2):e88970, 2014
                                                                                  4. Maron BJ et al: The 25-year genetic era in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: revisited. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 7(4):401-4, 2014
                                                                                  5. Choy E: Understanding the dynamics: pathways involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 51 Suppl 5:v3-v11, 2012
                                                                                  6. Landi A et al: Pannus regression after posterior decompression and occipito-cervical fixation in occipito-atlanto-axial instability due to rheumatoid arthritis: Case report and literature review. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. Epub ahead of print, 2012
                                                                                  7. van Vollenhoven RF et al: Conventional combination treatment versus biological treatment in methotrexate-refractory early rheumatoid arthritis: 2 year follow-up of the randomised, non-blinded, parallel-group Swefot trial. Lancet. 379(9827):1712-20, 2012
                                                                                  8. Kwong Y et al: Craniometric measurements in the assessment of craniovertebral settling: are they still relevant in the age of cross-sectional imaging? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(4):W421-5, 2011
                                                                                  9. Myasoedova E et al: Lipid paradox in rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of serum lipid measures and systemic inflammation on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 70(3):482-7, 2011
                                                                                  10. Saevarsdottir S et al: Predictors of response to methotrexate in early DMARD naive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the initial open-label phase of the SWEFOT trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 70(3):469-75, 2011
                                                                                  11. Aletaha D et al: 2010 Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheum. 62(9):2569-81, 2010
                                                                                  12. Krauss WE et al: Rheumatoid arthritis of the craniovertebral junction. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):83-95, 2010
                                                                                  13. Wolfs JF et al: Neurologic outcome of surgical and conservative treatment of rheumatoid cervical spine subluxation: a systematic review. Arthritis Rheum. 61(12):1743-52, 2009
                                                                                  14. Goel A et al: Immediate postoperative regression of retroodontoid pannus after lateral mass reconstruction in a patient with rheumatoid disease of the craniovertebral junction. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 9(3):273-6, 2008
                                                                                  15. Kim DH et al: Rheumatoid arthritis in the cervical spine. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 13(7):463-74, 2005
                                                                                  16. Shen FH et al: Rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation and surgical management of the cervical spine. Spine J. 4(6):689-700, 2004
                                                                                  17. Neva MH et al: Early and extensive erosiveness in peripheral joints predicts atlantoaxial subluxations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 48(7):1808-13, 2003
                                                                                  18. Roche CJ et al: The rheumatoid cervical spine: signs of instability on plain cervical radiographs. Clin Radiol. 57(4):241-9, 2002
                                                                                  19. Riew KD et al: Diagnosing basilar invagination in the rheumatoid patient. The reliability of radiographic criteria. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(2):194-200, 2001
                                                                                  20. Riise T et al: High mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and atlantoaxial subluxation. J Rheumatol. 28(11):2425-9, 2001
                                                                                  21. Janssen H et al: MR imaging of arthritides of the cervical spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 8(3):491-512, 2000
                                                                                  22. Neva MH et al: Prevalence of radiological changes in the cervical spine--a cross sectional study after 20 years from presentation of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 27(1):90-3, 2000
                                                                                  23. Puttlitz CM et al: Biomechanical rationale for the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis in the craniovertebral junction. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 25(13):1607-16, 2000
                                                                                  24. Zoli A et al: Craniocervical junction involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: a clinical and radiological study. J Rheumatol. 27(5):1178-82, 2000
                                                                                  25. El-Khoury GY et al: Cranial settling in rheumatoid arthritis. Radiology. 137(3):637-42, 1980