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Aggressive Angiomyxoma
Christine O. Menias, MD; Evis Sala, MD, PhD; Jo Hugil, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM)
          • Definitions

            • Rare mesenchymal tumor that most commonly arises in vulvovaginal region, perineum, and pelvis
              • Very rarely arises directly from any pelvic or perineal organ
                • "Aggressive" emphasizes often infiltrative nature of tumor and its frequent association with local recurrence
                  • Frequently misdiagnosed with more common entities, such as Bartholin cyst, lipoma, or hernia
              • Tumor often misdiagnosed before surgery, and its anatomical extent is frequently not perceived until resection
                • Metastases are exceedingly rare, and overall, prognosis is good

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Amin A et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. J Obstet Gynaecol. 33(3):325-6, 2013
                                          2. Bakhtiar UJ et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 23(7):507-8, 2013
                                          3. Elkattah R et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: a précis for primary care providers. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2013:183725, 2013
                                          4. Huang CC et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma: a small palpable vulvar lesion with a huge mass in the pelvis. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 17(1):75-8, 2013
                                          5. Ichinokawa Y et al: Case of aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. J Dermatol. 39(11):934-5, 2012
                                          6. Dahiya K et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva and vagina: a series of three cases and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 283(5):1145-8, 2011
                                          7. Lee CW et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva treated by using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 32(6):686-8, 2011
                                          8. Obst M et al: [Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva presenting as a huge pedunculated tumor.] Ginekol Pol. 82(1):68-70, 2011
                                          9. Gore GA et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of female vulva. Indian J Cancer. 47(3):352-4, 2010
                                          10. Kato H et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings of fibroepithelial polyp of the vulva: radiological-pathological correlation. Jpn J Radiol. 28(8):609-12, 2010
                                          11. Nalini G et al: Fine needle aspiration cytology in a case of recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva. Cytopathology. 21(3):207-8, 2010
                                          12. Sun NX et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: case report and literature review. J Int Med Res. 38(4):1547-52, 2010
                                          13. Nava Flores EL et al: [Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. Case report and literature review.] Ginecol Obstet Mex. 77(10):487-90, 2009
                                          14. Sereda D et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 13(1):46-50, 2009
                                          15. Varras M et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: our experience of a rare case with review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 27(2):188-92, 2006
                                          16. Abu JI et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the perineum. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 15(6):1097-100, 2005
                                          17. Alobaid A et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva or perineum: report of three patients. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 27(11):1023-6, 2005
                                          18. Dragoumis K et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva extending into the pelvis: report of two cases. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 31(4):310-3, 2005
                                          19. Gungor T et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva and vagina. A common problem: misdiagnosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 112(1):114-6, 2004
                                          20. Jeyadevan NN et al: Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma. Clin Radiol. 58(2):157-62, 2003
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Rare mesenchymal tumor that most commonly arises in vulvovaginal region, perineum, and pelvis
                                                      • Very rarely arises directly from any pelvic or perineal organ
                                                        • "Aggressive" emphasizes often infiltrative nature of tumor and its frequent association with local recurrence
                                                          • Frequently misdiagnosed with more common entities, such as Bartholin cyst, lipoma, or hernia
                                                      • Tumor often misdiagnosed before surgery, and its anatomical extent is frequently not perceived until resection
                                                        • Metastases are exceedingly rare, and overall, prognosis is good

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Amin A et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. J Obstet Gynaecol. 33(3):325-6, 2013
                                                                                  2. Bakhtiar UJ et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 23(7):507-8, 2013
                                                                                  3. Elkattah R et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: a précis for primary care providers. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2013:183725, 2013
                                                                                  4. Huang CC et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma: a small palpable vulvar lesion with a huge mass in the pelvis. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 17(1):75-8, 2013
                                                                                  5. Ichinokawa Y et al: Case of aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. J Dermatol. 39(11):934-5, 2012
                                                                                  6. Dahiya K et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva and vagina: a series of three cases and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 283(5):1145-8, 2011
                                                                                  7. Lee CW et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva treated by using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 32(6):686-8, 2011
                                                                                  8. Obst M et al: [Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva presenting as a huge pedunculated tumor.] Ginekol Pol. 82(1):68-70, 2011
                                                                                  9. Gore GA et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of female vulva. Indian J Cancer. 47(3):352-4, 2010
                                                                                  10. Kato H et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings of fibroepithelial polyp of the vulva: radiological-pathological correlation. Jpn J Radiol. 28(8):609-12, 2010
                                                                                  11. Nalini G et al: Fine needle aspiration cytology in a case of recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva. Cytopathology. 21(3):207-8, 2010
                                                                                  12. Sun NX et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: case report and literature review. J Int Med Res. 38(4):1547-52, 2010
                                                                                  13. Nava Flores EL et al: [Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. Case report and literature review.] Ginecol Obstet Mex. 77(10):487-90, 2009
                                                                                  14. Sereda D et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 13(1):46-50, 2009
                                                                                  15. Varras M et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: our experience of a rare case with review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 27(2):188-92, 2006
                                                                                  16. Abu JI et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the perineum. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 15(6):1097-100, 2005
                                                                                  17. Alobaid A et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva or perineum: report of three patients. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 27(11):1023-6, 2005
                                                                                  18. Dragoumis K et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva extending into the pelvis: report of two cases. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 31(4):310-3, 2005
                                                                                  19. Gungor T et al: Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva and vagina. A common problem: misdiagnosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 112(1):114-6, 2004
                                                                                  20. Jeyadevan NN et al: Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma. Clin Radiol. 58(2):157-62, 2003