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Alveolar Growth Abnormality
Mantosh S. Rattan, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Alveolar growth disorder, alveolar simplification
          • Definitions

            • Alveolar growth abnormality (AGA): Pathologic pattern of enlargement & simplification of alveoli with concomitant underdevelopment of pulmonary vasculature

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    • Reporting Tips

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Armes JE et al: Diffuse lung disease of infancy: a pattern-based, algorithmic approach to histological diagnosis. J Clin Pathol. 68(2):100-10, 2015
                                      2. Fan LL et al: Diffuse lung disease in biopsied children 2 to 18 years of age. Application of the chILD classification scheme. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 12(10):1498-505, 2015
                                      3. Lange M et al: 47 patients with FLNA associated periventricular nodular heterotopia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 10:134, 2015
                                      4. McEvoy CT et al: The natural history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: the case for primary prevention. Clin Perinatol. 42(4):911-31, 2015
                                      5. Lord A et al: Filamin A mutation may be associated with diffuse lung disease mimicking bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature newborns. Respir Care. 59(11):e171-7, 2014
                                      6. Narayanan M et al: Catch-up alveolarization in ex-preterm children: evidence from (3)He magnetic resonance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 187(10):1104-9, 2013
                                      7. Reinstein E et al: Vascular and connective tissue anomalies associated with X-linked periventricular heterotopia due to mutations in Filamin A. Eur J Hum Genet. 21(5):494-502, 2013
                                      8. Narayanan M et al: Alveolarization continues during childhood and adolescence: new evidence from helium-3 magnetic resonance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 185(2):186-91, 2012
                                      9. Guillerman RP et al: Contemporary perspectives on pediatric diffuse lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 49(5):847-68, 2011
                                      10. Balinotti JE et al: Growth of lung parenchyma in infants and toddlers with chronic lung disease of infancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 181(10):1093-7, 2010
                                      11. Dishop MK: Diagnostic pathology of diffuse lung disease in children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 23(1):69-85, 2010
                                      12. Langston C et al: Diffuse lung disease in infancy: a proposed classification applied to 259 diagnostic biopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 12(6):421-37, 2009
                                      13. Biko DM et al: Subpleural lung cysts in Down syndrome: prevalence and association with coexisting diagnoses. Pediatr Radiol. 38(3):280-4, 2008
                                      14. Deutsch GH et al: Diffuse lung disease in young children: application of a novel classification scheme. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 176(11):1120-8, 2007
                                      15. Ehrenkranz RA et al: Validation of the National Institutes of Health consensus definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 116(6):1353-60, 2005
                                      16. Pieper CH et al: The value of ultrasound examination of the lungs in predicting bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Radiol. 34(3):227-31, 2004
                                      17. Jobe AJ: The new BPD: an arrest of lung development. Pediatr Res. 46(6):641-3, 1999
                                      18. Coalson JJ et al: Decreased alveolarization in baboon survivors with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 152(2):640-6, 1995
                                      19. Avni EF et al: Hyaline membrane disease in the newborn: diagnosis by ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol. 20(3):143-6, 1990
                                      20. Northway WH Jr et al: Late pulmonary sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med. 323(26):1793-9, 1990
                                      21. Sherer DM et al: Pulmonary hypoplasia: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 45(11):792-803, 1990
                                      22. Cooney TP et al: The radial alveolar count method of Emery and Mithal: a reappraisal 1--postnatal lung growth. Thorax. 37(8):572-9, 1982
                                      23. Cooney TP et al: The radial alveolar count method of Emery and Mithal: a reappraisal 2--intrauterine and early postnatal lung growth. Thorax. 37(8):580-3, 1982
                                      24. The New BPD
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Alveolar growth disorder, alveolar simplification
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Alveolar growth abnormality (AGA): Pathologic pattern of enlargement & simplification of alveoli with concomitant underdevelopment of pulmonary vasculature

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Armes JE et al: Diffuse lung disease of infancy: a pattern-based, algorithmic approach to histological diagnosis. J Clin Pathol. 68(2):100-10, 2015
                                                                          2. Fan LL et al: Diffuse lung disease in biopsied children 2 to 18 years of age. Application of the chILD classification scheme. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 12(10):1498-505, 2015
                                                                          3. Lange M et al: 47 patients with FLNA associated periventricular nodular heterotopia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 10:134, 2015
                                                                          4. McEvoy CT et al: The natural history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: the case for primary prevention. Clin Perinatol. 42(4):911-31, 2015
                                                                          5. Lord A et al: Filamin A mutation may be associated with diffuse lung disease mimicking bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature newborns. Respir Care. 59(11):e171-7, 2014
                                                                          6. Narayanan M et al: Catch-up alveolarization in ex-preterm children: evidence from (3)He magnetic resonance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 187(10):1104-9, 2013
                                                                          7. Reinstein E et al: Vascular and connective tissue anomalies associated with X-linked periventricular heterotopia due to mutations in Filamin A. Eur J Hum Genet. 21(5):494-502, 2013
                                                                          8. Narayanan M et al: Alveolarization continues during childhood and adolescence: new evidence from helium-3 magnetic resonance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 185(2):186-91, 2012
                                                                          9. Guillerman RP et al: Contemporary perspectives on pediatric diffuse lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 49(5):847-68, 2011
                                                                          10. Balinotti JE et al: Growth of lung parenchyma in infants and toddlers with chronic lung disease of infancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 181(10):1093-7, 2010
                                                                          11. Dishop MK: Diagnostic pathology of diffuse lung disease in children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 23(1):69-85, 2010
                                                                          12. Langston C et al: Diffuse lung disease in infancy: a proposed classification applied to 259 diagnostic biopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 12(6):421-37, 2009
                                                                          13. Biko DM et al: Subpleural lung cysts in Down syndrome: prevalence and association with coexisting diagnoses. Pediatr Radiol. 38(3):280-4, 2008
                                                                          14. Deutsch GH et al: Diffuse lung disease in young children: application of a novel classification scheme. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 176(11):1120-8, 2007
                                                                          15. Ehrenkranz RA et al: Validation of the National Institutes of Health consensus definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 116(6):1353-60, 2005
                                                                          16. Pieper CH et al: The value of ultrasound examination of the lungs in predicting bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Radiol. 34(3):227-31, 2004
                                                                          17. Jobe AJ: The new BPD: an arrest of lung development. Pediatr Res. 46(6):641-3, 1999
                                                                          18. Coalson JJ et al: Decreased alveolarization in baboon survivors with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 152(2):640-6, 1995
                                                                          19. Avni EF et al: Hyaline membrane disease in the newborn: diagnosis by ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol. 20(3):143-6, 1990
                                                                          20. Northway WH Jr et al: Late pulmonary sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med. 323(26):1793-9, 1990
                                                                          21. Sherer DM et al: Pulmonary hypoplasia: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 45(11):792-803, 1990
                                                                          22. Cooney TP et al: The radial alveolar count method of Emery and Mithal: a reappraisal 1--postnatal lung growth. Thorax. 37(8):572-9, 1982
                                                                          23. Cooney TP et al: The radial alveolar count method of Emery and Mithal: a reappraisal 2--intrauterine and early postnatal lung growth. Thorax. 37(8):580-3, 1982
                                                                          24. The New BPD