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Alzheimer Disease
Akiva Mintz, MD, PhD, MHA, CFA; Bryan J. Neth, BS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Alzheimer disease (AD)
            • Progressive neurodegenerative brain disease generally characterized by impairments in episodic memory and other cognitive domains
            • Likely related to amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau aggregation leading to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal/glial cell death
            • Role of imaging
              • Early detection of preclinical AD
              • Diagnosis of AD with clinical presentation and other biomarkers
              • Differential diagnosis between AD and other causes of dementia

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Treatment

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Key Imaging Findings

                            Selected References

                            1. Morris E et al: Diagnostic accuracy of (18)F amyloid PET tracers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 43(2):374-85, 2016
                            2. Thies W et al: 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 9(2):208-45, 2013
                            3. Hyman BT et al: National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association guidelines for the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 8(1):1-13, 2012
                            4. Jack CR Jr: Alzheimer disease: new concepts on its neurobiology and the clinical role imaging will play. Radiology. 263(2):344-61, 2012
                            5. Herholz K et al: Clinical amyloid imaging in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol. 10(7):667-70, 2011
                            6. McKhann GM et al: The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):263-9, 2011
                            7. Sperling RA et al: Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):280-92, 2011
                            8. Vitali P et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI hyperintensity patterns differentiate CJD from other rapid dementias. Neurology. 76(20):1711-9, 2011
                            9. Frisoni GB et al: The clinical use of structural MRI in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 6(2):67-77, 2010
                            10. Jack CR Jr et al: Hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers of the Alzheimer's pathological cascade. Lancet Neurol. 9(1):119-28, 2010
                            11. Nordberg A et al: The use of PET in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 6(2):78-87, 2010
                            12. Thomsen G et al: Procedure guideline for brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals 3.0. J Nucl Med Technol. 38(4):209, 2010
                            13. Koole M et al: Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 18F-GE067: a radioligand for in vivo brain amyloid imaging. J Nucl Med. 50(5):818-22, 2009
                            14. Mosconi L et al: Multicenter standardized 18F-FDG PET diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias. J Nucl Med. 49(3):390-8, 2008
                            15. Silverman DH et al: Added clinical benefit of incorporating 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose with positron emission tomography into the clinical evaluation of patients with cognitive impairment. Mol Imaging Biol. 4(4):283-93, 2002
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Clinical Issues

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Definitions

                                    • Alzheimer disease (AD)
                                      • Progressive neurodegenerative brain disease generally characterized by impairments in episodic memory and other cognitive domains
                                      • Likely related to amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau aggregation leading to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal/glial cell death
                                      • Role of imaging
                                        • Early detection of preclinical AD
                                        • Diagnosis of AD with clinical presentation and other biomarkers
                                        • Differential diagnosis between AD and other causes of dementia

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                      • MR Findings

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Treatment

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Key Imaging Findings

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Morris E et al: Diagnostic accuracy of (18)F amyloid PET tracers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 43(2):374-85, 2016
                                                      2. Thies W et al: 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 9(2):208-45, 2013
                                                      3. Hyman BT et al: National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association guidelines for the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 8(1):1-13, 2012
                                                      4. Jack CR Jr: Alzheimer disease: new concepts on its neurobiology and the clinical role imaging will play. Radiology. 263(2):344-61, 2012
                                                      5. Herholz K et al: Clinical amyloid imaging in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol. 10(7):667-70, 2011
                                                      6. McKhann GM et al: The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):263-9, 2011
                                                      7. Sperling RA et al: Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):280-92, 2011
                                                      8. Vitali P et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI hyperintensity patterns differentiate CJD from other rapid dementias. Neurology. 76(20):1711-9, 2011
                                                      9. Frisoni GB et al: The clinical use of structural MRI in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 6(2):67-77, 2010
                                                      10. Jack CR Jr et al: Hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers of the Alzheimer's pathological cascade. Lancet Neurol. 9(1):119-28, 2010
                                                      11. Nordberg A et al: The use of PET in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 6(2):78-87, 2010
                                                      12. Thomsen G et al: Procedure guideline for brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals 3.0. J Nucl Med Technol. 38(4):209, 2010
                                                      13. Koole M et al: Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 18F-GE067: a radioligand for in vivo brain amyloid imaging. J Nucl Med. 50(5):818-22, 2009
                                                      14. Mosconi L et al: Multicenter standardized 18F-FDG PET diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias. J Nucl Med. 49(3):390-8, 2008
                                                      15. Silverman DH et al: Added clinical benefit of incorporating 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose with positron emission tomography into the clinical evaluation of patients with cognitive impairment. Mol Imaging Biol. 4(4):283-93, 2002