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Alzheimer Disease
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD; James M. Provenzale, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Alzheimer disease (AD)
            • Synonyms

              • Senile/presenile dementia of Alzheimer type
            • Definitions

              • AD is progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline, memory impairment, and adverse impact on activities of daily living
              • National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer’s Association workgroup recommendations 2011
                • Phases of AD pathophysiological processes
                  • Preclinical AD
                  • Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in AD
                  • AD dementia

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Brown RK et al: Brain PET in suspected dementia: patterns of altered FDG metabolism. Radiographics. 34(3):684-701, 2014
                                            2. Nasrallah IM et al: Multimodality imaging of Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative dementias. J Nucl Med. 55(12):2003-11, 2014
                                            3. Ishii K: PET Approaches for Diagnosis of Dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. Epub ahead of print, 2013
                                            4. Petrella JR: Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease. Radiology. 269(3):671-91, 2013
                                            5. Croisile B et al: [The new 2011 recommendations of the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease: Preclinal stages, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 168(6-7):471-82, 2012
                                            6. Jack CR Jr: Alzheimer disease: new concepts on its neurobiology and the clinical role imaging will play. Radiology. 263(2):344-61, 2012
                                            7. Albert MS et al: The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):270-9, 2011
                                            8. McKhann GM et al: The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):263-9, 2011
                                            9. Sperling RA et al: Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):280-92, 2011
                                            10. Dai W et al: Mild cognitive impairment and alzheimer disease: patterns of altered cerebral blood flow at MR imaging. Radiology. 250(3):856-66, 2009
                                            11. McEvoy LK et al: Alzheimer disease: quantitative structural neuroimaging for detection and prediction of clinical and structural changes in mild cognitive impairment. Radiology. 251(1):195-205, 2009
                                            12. Petrella JR et al: Cortical deactivation in mild cognitive impairment: high-field-strength functional MR imaging. Radiology. 2007 Oct;245(1):224-35. Erratum in: Radiology. 246(1):338, 2008
                                            13. Norfray JF et al: Alzheimer's disease: neuropathologic findings and recent advances in imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):3-13, 2004
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Alzheimer disease (AD)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Senile/presenile dementia of Alzheimer type
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • AD is progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline, memory impairment, and adverse impact on activities of daily living
                                                        • National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer’s Association workgroup recommendations 2011
                                                          • Phases of AD pathophysiological processes
                                                            • Preclinical AD
                                                            • Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in AD
                                                            • AD dementia

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Brown RK et al: Brain PET in suspected dementia: patterns of altered FDG metabolism. Radiographics. 34(3):684-701, 2014
                                                                                      2. Nasrallah IM et al: Multimodality imaging of Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative dementias. J Nucl Med. 55(12):2003-11, 2014
                                                                                      3. Ishii K: PET Approaches for Diagnosis of Dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. Epub ahead of print, 2013
                                                                                      4. Petrella JR: Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease. Radiology. 269(3):671-91, 2013
                                                                                      5. Croisile B et al: [The new 2011 recommendations of the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease: Preclinal stages, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 168(6-7):471-82, 2012
                                                                                      6. Jack CR Jr: Alzheimer disease: new concepts on its neurobiology and the clinical role imaging will play. Radiology. 263(2):344-61, 2012
                                                                                      7. Albert MS et al: The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):270-9, 2011
                                                                                      8. McKhann GM et al: The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):263-9, 2011
                                                                                      9. Sperling RA et al: Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 7(3):280-92, 2011
                                                                                      10. Dai W et al: Mild cognitive impairment and alzheimer disease: patterns of altered cerebral blood flow at MR imaging. Radiology. 250(3):856-66, 2009
                                                                                      11. McEvoy LK et al: Alzheimer disease: quantitative structural neuroimaging for detection and prediction of clinical and structural changes in mild cognitive impairment. Radiology. 251(1):195-205, 2009
                                                                                      12. Petrella JR et al: Cortical deactivation in mild cognitive impairment: high-field-strength functional MR imaging. Radiology. 2007 Oct;245(1):224-35. Erratum in: Radiology. 246(1):338, 2008
                                                                                      13. Norfray JF et al: Alzheimer's disease: neuropathologic findings and recent advances in imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):3-13, 2004