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Anal Carcinoma
Ahmed Ebada Salem, MD; Akram M. Shaaban, MBBCh
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7

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. Valvo F et al: Cancer of the anal region. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 135:115-27, 2019
                                2. Benson AB 3rd et al: Anal carcinoma, version 2.2018, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 16(7):852-71, 2018
                                3. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                4. Granata V et al: Radiological assessment of anal cancer: an overview and update. Infect Agent Cancer. 11:52, 2016
                                5. Matalon SA et al: Anorectal cancer: critical anatomic and staging distinctions that affect use of radiation therapy. Radiographics. 35(7):2090-107, 2015
                                6. Tonolini M et al: Erratum to: MRI and CT of anal carcinoma: a pictorial review. Insights Imaging. 4(1):63, 2013
                                7. Kochhar R et al: Imaging of anal carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(3):W335-44, 2012
                                8. Engledow AH et al: The role of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Colorectal Dis. 100(5):693-700, 2010
                                9. Goh V et al: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 78(3):715-21, 2010
                                10. Uronis HE et al: Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist. 12(5):524-34, 2007
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes of Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Valvo F et al: Cancer of the anal region. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 135:115-27, 2019
                                                              2. Benson AB 3rd et al: Anal carcinoma, version 2.2018, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 16(7):852-71, 2018
                                                              3. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                              4. Granata V et al: Radiological assessment of anal cancer: an overview and update. Infect Agent Cancer. 11:52, 2016
                                                              5. Matalon SA et al: Anorectal cancer: critical anatomic and staging distinctions that affect use of radiation therapy. Radiographics. 35(7):2090-107, 2015
                                                              6. Tonolini M et al: Erratum to: MRI and CT of anal carcinoma: a pictorial review. Insights Imaging. 4(1):63, 2013
                                                              7. Kochhar R et al: Imaging of anal carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(3):W335-44, 2012
                                                              8. Engledow AH et al: The role of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Colorectal Dis. 100(5):693-700, 2010
                                                              9. Goh V et al: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 78(3):715-21, 2010
                                                              10. Uronis HE et al: Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist. 12(5):524-34, 2007