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Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma
Luke N. Ledbetter, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATCa)
            • Synonyms

              • Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma
            • Definitions

              • Aggressive, lethal thyroid malignancy
                • Arises from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTCa), multinodular goiter (MNG), or de novo

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Dibelius G et al: Noninvasive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: report of a case and literature review. Thyroid. 24(8):1319-24, 2014
                                                2. Mohebati A et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a 25-year single-institution experience. Ann Surg Oncol. 21(5):1665-70, 2014
                                                3. Saindane AM: Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of thyroid. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):123-45, 2013
                                                4. Smallridge RC et al: American Thyroid Association guidelines for management of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 22(11):1104-39, 2012
                                                5. Baroli A et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Practical aspects of multimodal therapy and data emerging from a 40-year experience at a single Italian institution. Minerva Endocrinol. 35(1):9-16, 2010
                                                6. Kouniavsky G et al: Thyroid tumorigenesis and molecular markers in thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 22(1):23-9, 2010
                                                7. Smallridge RC et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: pathogenesis and emerging therapies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 22(6):486-97, 2010
                                                8. Pichardo-Lowden A et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a young woman: a rare case of survival. Thyroid. 19(7):775-9, 2009
                                                9. Swaak-Kragten AT et al: Multimodality treatment for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma--treatment outcome in 75 patients. Radiother Oncol. 92(1):100-4, 2009
                                                10. Bogsrud TV et al: 18F-FDG PET in the management of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 18(7):713-9, 2008
                                                11. Chen J et al: Surgery and radiotherapy improves survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 1983-2002. Am J Clin Oncol. 31(5):460-4, 2008
                                                12. Chiacchio S et al: Anaplastic thyroid cancer: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment. Minerva Endocrinol. 33(4):341-57, 2008
                                                13. Neff RL et al: Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 37(2):525-38, xi, 2008
                                                14. Volante M et al: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic features and controversial issues. Endocr Pathol. 19(3):150-5, 2008
                                                15. Kim TY et al: Prognostic factors for Korean patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck. 29(8):765-72, 2007
                                                16. Kebebew E et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment outcome and prognostic factors. Cancer. 103(7):1330-5, 2005
                                                17. Kihara M et al: Prognostic factors of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Surg Today. 34(5):394-8, 2004
                                                18. Pasieka JL: Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 15(1):78-83, 2003
                                                19. Sherman SI: Thyroid carcinoma. Lancet. 361(9356):501-11, 2003
                                                20. Sniezek JC et al: Rare tumors of the thyroid gland. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 36(1):107-15, 2003
                                                21. Wiseman SM et al: Anaplastic transformation of thyroid cancer: review of clinical, pathologic, and molecular evidence provides new insights into disease biology and future therapy. Head Neck. 25(8):662-70, 2003
                                                22. Ishikawa H et al: Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging. Radiat Med. 20(1):9-15, 2002
                                                23. Stanley MW: Selected problems in fine needle aspiration of head and neck masses. Mod Pathol. 15(3):342-50, 2002
                                                24. Vini L et al: Management of thyroid cancer. Lancet Oncol. 3(7):407-14, 2002
                                                25. Haigh PI et al: Completely resected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation is associated with prolonged survival. Cancer. 91(12):2335-42, 2001
                                                26. Ain KB: Management of undifferentiated thyroid cancer. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 14(4):615-29, 2000
                                                27. Giuffrida D et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: current diagnosis and treatment. Ann Oncol. 11(9):1083-9, 2000
                                                28. Haigh PI: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 1(4):353-7, 2000
                                                29. Lind P et al: The role of F-18FDG PET in thyroid cancer. Acta Med Austriaca. 27(2):38-41, 2000
                                                30. Nishiyama RH: Overview of surgical pathology of the thyroid gland. World J Surg. 24(8):898-906, 2000
                                                31. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000
                                                32. Ain KB: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a therapeutic challenge. Semin Surg Oncol. 16(1):64-9, 1999
                                                33. Alagol F et al: Anaplastic thyroid cancer with transient thyrotoxicosis: case report and literature review. Thyroid. 9(10):1029-32, 1999
                                                34. Ain KB: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: behavior, biology, and therapeutic approaches. Thyroid. 8(8):715-26, 1998
                                                35. Pasieka JL: Anaplastic cancer, lymphoma, and metastases of the thyroid gland. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 7(4):707-20, 1998
                                                36. al-Sobhi SS et al: Management of thyroid carcinosarcoma. Surgery. 122(3):548-52, 1997
                                                37. Austin JR et al: Thyroid cancers. II. Medullary, anaplastic, lymphoma, sarcoma, squamous cell. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 29(4):611-27, 1996
                                                38. Takashima S et al: CT evaluation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 11(2):361-7, 1990
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATCa)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Aggressive, lethal thyroid malignancy
                                                              • Arises from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTCa), multinodular goiter (MNG), or de novo

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Dibelius G et al: Noninvasive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: report of a case and literature review. Thyroid. 24(8):1319-24, 2014
                                                                                              2. Mohebati A et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a 25-year single-institution experience. Ann Surg Oncol. 21(5):1665-70, 2014
                                                                                              3. Saindane AM: Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of thyroid. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):123-45, 2013
                                                                                              4. Smallridge RC et al: American Thyroid Association guidelines for management of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 22(11):1104-39, 2012
                                                                                              5. Baroli A et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Practical aspects of multimodal therapy and data emerging from a 40-year experience at a single Italian institution. Minerva Endocrinol. 35(1):9-16, 2010
                                                                                              6. Kouniavsky G et al: Thyroid tumorigenesis and molecular markers in thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 22(1):23-9, 2010
                                                                                              7. Smallridge RC et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: pathogenesis and emerging therapies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 22(6):486-97, 2010
                                                                                              8. Pichardo-Lowden A et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a young woman: a rare case of survival. Thyroid. 19(7):775-9, 2009
                                                                                              9. Swaak-Kragten AT et al: Multimodality treatment for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma--treatment outcome in 75 patients. Radiother Oncol. 92(1):100-4, 2009
                                                                                              10. Bogsrud TV et al: 18F-FDG PET in the management of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 18(7):713-9, 2008
                                                                                              11. Chen J et al: Surgery and radiotherapy improves survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 1983-2002. Am J Clin Oncol. 31(5):460-4, 2008
                                                                                              12. Chiacchio S et al: Anaplastic thyroid cancer: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment. Minerva Endocrinol. 33(4):341-57, 2008
                                                                                              13. Neff RL et al: Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 37(2):525-38, xi, 2008
                                                                                              14. Volante M et al: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic features and controversial issues. Endocr Pathol. 19(3):150-5, 2008
                                                                                              15. Kim TY et al: Prognostic factors for Korean patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck. 29(8):765-72, 2007
                                                                                              16. Kebebew E et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment outcome and prognostic factors. Cancer. 103(7):1330-5, 2005
                                                                                              17. Kihara M et al: Prognostic factors of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Surg Today. 34(5):394-8, 2004
                                                                                              18. Pasieka JL: Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 15(1):78-83, 2003
                                                                                              19. Sherman SI: Thyroid carcinoma. Lancet. 361(9356):501-11, 2003
                                                                                              20. Sniezek JC et al: Rare tumors of the thyroid gland. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 36(1):107-15, 2003
                                                                                              21. Wiseman SM et al: Anaplastic transformation of thyroid cancer: review of clinical, pathologic, and molecular evidence provides new insights into disease biology and future therapy. Head Neck. 25(8):662-70, 2003
                                                                                              22. Ishikawa H et al: Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging. Radiat Med. 20(1):9-15, 2002
                                                                                              23. Stanley MW: Selected problems in fine needle aspiration of head and neck masses. Mod Pathol. 15(3):342-50, 2002
                                                                                              24. Vini L et al: Management of thyroid cancer. Lancet Oncol. 3(7):407-14, 2002
                                                                                              25. Haigh PI et al: Completely resected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation is associated with prolonged survival. Cancer. 91(12):2335-42, 2001
                                                                                              26. Ain KB: Management of undifferentiated thyroid cancer. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 14(4):615-29, 2000
                                                                                              27. Giuffrida D et al: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: current diagnosis and treatment. Ann Oncol. 11(9):1083-9, 2000
                                                                                              28. Haigh PI: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 1(4):353-7, 2000
                                                                                              29. Lind P et al: The role of F-18FDG PET in thyroid cancer. Acta Med Austriaca. 27(2):38-41, 2000
                                                                                              30. Nishiyama RH: Overview of surgical pathology of the thyroid gland. World J Surg. 24(8):898-906, 2000
                                                                                              31. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000
                                                                                              32. Ain KB: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a therapeutic challenge. Semin Surg Oncol. 16(1):64-9, 1999
                                                                                              33. Alagol F et al: Anaplastic thyroid cancer with transient thyrotoxicosis: case report and literature review. Thyroid. 9(10):1029-32, 1999
                                                                                              34. Ain KB: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: behavior, biology, and therapeutic approaches. Thyroid. 8(8):715-26, 1998
                                                                                              35. Pasieka JL: Anaplastic cancer, lymphoma, and metastases of the thyroid gland. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 7(4):707-20, 1998
                                                                                              36. al-Sobhi SS et al: Management of thyroid carcinosarcoma. Surgery. 122(3):548-52, 1997
                                                                                              37. Austin JR et al: Thyroid cancers. II. Medullary, anaplastic, lymphoma, sarcoma, squamous cell. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 29(4):611-27, 1996
                                                                                              38. Takashima S et al: CT evaluation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 11(2):361-7, 1990