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Ankylosing Spondylitis, Cervical Spine
Lubdha M. Shah, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS)
              • Definitions

                • Disease that involves erosions, subluxations, and ossification of ligaments in cervical spine
                  • Syndesmophyte: Paraspinous ligamentous or disc ossification bridging 2 adjacent vertebral bodies

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        • Imaging of Trauma in AS

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Albert GW et al: Ankylosing spondylitis of the craniovertebral junction: a single surgeon's experience. J Neurosurg Spine. 14(4):429-36, 2011
                                              2. Jang JH et al: Ankylosing spondylitis: patterns of radiographic involvement--a re-examination of accepted principles in a cohort of 769 patients. Radiology. 258(1):192-8, 2011
                                              3. Bochkova AG et al: Spinal inflammation lesions as detected by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with early ankylosing spondylitis are more often observed in posterior structures of the spine. Rheumatology (Oxford). 49(4):749-55, 2010
                                              4. Campagna R et al: Fractures of the ankylosed spine: MDCT and MRI with emphasis on individual anatomic spinal structures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):987-95, 2009
                                              5. Koivikko MP et al: MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis. Skeletal Radiol. 37(9):813-9, 2008
                                              6. Braun J et al: Ankylosing spondylitis. Lancet. 369(9570):1379-90, 2007
                                              7. Lee JY et al: Cervical spine involvement in longstanding ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 23(3):331-8, 2005
                                              8. Muche B et al: Anatomic structures involved in early- and late-stage sacroiliitis in spondylarthritis: a detailed analysis by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Arthritis Rheum. 48(5):1374-84, 2003
                                              9. Brophy S et al: The natural history of ankylosing spondylitis as defined by radiological progression. J Rheumatol. 29(6):1236-43, 2002
                                              10. Calin A et al: A new dimension to outcome: application of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index. J Rheumatol. 26(4):988-92, 1999
                                              11. Ramos-Remus C et al: Frequency of atlantoaxial subluxation and neurologic involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 22(11):2120-5, 1995
                                              12. Suarez-Almazor ME et al: Anterior atlantoaxial subluxation in patients with spondyloarthropathies: association with peripheral disease. J Rheumatol. 15(6):973-5, 1988
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Disease that involves erosions, subluxations, and ossification of ligaments in cervical spine
                                                              • Syndesmophyte: Paraspinous ligamentous or disc ossification bridging 2 adjacent vertebral bodies

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    • Imaging of Trauma in AS

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Albert GW et al: Ankylosing spondylitis of the craniovertebral junction: a single surgeon's experience. J Neurosurg Spine. 14(4):429-36, 2011
                                                                                          2. Jang JH et al: Ankylosing spondylitis: patterns of radiographic involvement--a re-examination of accepted principles in a cohort of 769 patients. Radiology. 258(1):192-8, 2011
                                                                                          3. Bochkova AG et al: Spinal inflammation lesions as detected by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with early ankylosing spondylitis are more often observed in posterior structures of the spine. Rheumatology (Oxford). 49(4):749-55, 2010
                                                                                          4. Campagna R et al: Fractures of the ankylosed spine: MDCT and MRI with emphasis on individual anatomic spinal structures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):987-95, 2009
                                                                                          5. Koivikko MP et al: MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis. Skeletal Radiol. 37(9):813-9, 2008
                                                                                          6. Braun J et al: Ankylosing spondylitis. Lancet. 369(9570):1379-90, 2007
                                                                                          7. Lee JY et al: Cervical spine involvement in longstanding ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 23(3):331-8, 2005
                                                                                          8. Muche B et al: Anatomic structures involved in early- and late-stage sacroiliitis in spondylarthritis: a detailed analysis by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Arthritis Rheum. 48(5):1374-84, 2003
                                                                                          9. Brophy S et al: The natural history of ankylosing spondylitis as defined by radiological progression. J Rheumatol. 29(6):1236-43, 2002
                                                                                          10. Calin A et al: A new dimension to outcome: application of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index. J Rheumatol. 26(4):988-92, 1999
                                                                                          11. Ramos-Remus C et al: Frequency of atlantoaxial subluxation and neurologic involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 22(11):2120-5, 1995
                                                                                          12. Suarez-Almazor ME et al: Anterior atlantoaxial subluxation in patients with spondyloarthropathies: association with peripheral disease. J Rheumatol. 15(6):973-5, 1988