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Anterior Compartment Imaging
Rania Farouk El Sayed, MD, PhD
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Key Facts

  • Normal Urethral Support System

    • Urethral Support System Defects

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        Imaging Evaluation

        • Imaging Modalities

          MR Techniques

          • General Background

            • Static MR

              • Dynamic MR

                • Endocavitary MR

                  MR of Urethral Support System

                  • Normal Urethral Support System

                    • Ventral Urethral Ligaments

                      • Dorsal Urethral Ligaments

                        • Endopelvic Fascia

                          • Puborectalis Muscle

                            Urethral Support System Defects

                            • Urethral Ligament Abnormalities

                              • Level III Endopelvic Fascial Defect

                                • Puborectalis Muscle Abnormalities

                                  Ultrasound

                                  • Imaging Techniques

                                    • Diagnostic Criteria

                                      Cystourethrography (CUG)

                                      • Technique and Diagnostic Criteria

                                        Diagnostic Checklist

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. American Urogynecologic Society and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Committee opinion: evaluation of uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence in women before surgical treatment. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 20(5):248-51, 2014
                                            2. Bitti GT et al: Pelvic floor failure: MR imaging evaluation of anatomic and functional abnormalities. Radiographics. 34(2):429-48, 2014
                                            3. Del Vescovo R et al: MRI role in morphological and functional assessment of the levator ani muscle: use in patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before and after pelvic floor rehabilitation. Eur J Radiol. 83(3):479-86, 2014
                                            4. Farouk El Sayed R: The urogynecological side of pelvic floor MRI: the clinician's needs and the radiologist's role. Abdom Imaging. 38(5):912-29, 2013
                                            5. Lammers K et al: Correlating signs and symptoms with pubovisceral muscle avulsions on magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 208(2):148, 2013
                                            6. Surabhi VR et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of female urethral and periurethral disorders. Radiol Clin North Am. 51(6):941-53, 2013
                                            7. Tasali N et al: MRI in stress urinary incontinence: endovaginal MRI with an intracavitary coil and dynamic pelvic MRI. Urol J. 9(1):397-404, 2012
                                            8. Maglinte DD et al: Functional imaging of the pelvic floor. Radiology. 258(1):23-39, 2011
                                            9. Haylen BT et al: An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. Int Urogynecol J. 21(1):5-26, 2010
                                            10. Miller JM et al: MRI findings in patients considered high risk for pelvic floor injury studied serially after vaginal childbirth. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(3):786-91, 2010
                                            11. Bennett GL et al: MRI of the urethra in women with lower urinary tract symptoms: spectrum of findings at static and dynamic imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(6):1708-15, 2009
                                            12. El Sayed RF et al: Pelvic floor dysfunction: assessment with combined analysis of static and dynamic MR imaging findings. Radiology. 248(2):518-30, 2008
                                            13. el-Sayed RF et al: Anatomy of the urethral supporting ligaments defined by dissection, histology, and MRI of female cadavers and MRI of healthy nulliparous women. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(5):1145-57, 2007
                                            14. Macura KJ et al: MR imaging of the female urethra and supporting ligaments in assessment of urinary incontinence: spectrum of abnormalities. Radiographics. 26(4):1135-49, 2006
                                            15. DeLancey JO: Structural support of the urethra as it relates to stress urinary incontinence: the hammock hypothesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 170(6):1713-20; discussion 1720-3, 1994
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            Key Facts

                                            • Normal Urethral Support System

                                              • Urethral Support System Defects

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  Imaging Evaluation

                                                  • Imaging Modalities

                                                    MR Techniques

                                                    • General Background

                                                      • Static MR

                                                        • Dynamic MR

                                                          • Endocavitary MR

                                                            MR of Urethral Support System

                                                            • Normal Urethral Support System

                                                              • Ventral Urethral Ligaments

                                                                • Dorsal Urethral Ligaments

                                                                  • Endopelvic Fascia

                                                                    • Puborectalis Muscle

                                                                      Urethral Support System Defects

                                                                      • Urethral Ligament Abnormalities

                                                                        • Level III Endopelvic Fascial Defect

                                                                          • Puborectalis Muscle Abnormalities

                                                                            Ultrasound

                                                                            • Imaging Techniques

                                                                              • Diagnostic Criteria

                                                                                Cystourethrography (CUG)

                                                                                • Technique and Diagnostic Criteria

                                                                                  Diagnostic Checklist

                                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. American Urogynecologic Society and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Committee opinion: evaluation of uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence in women before surgical treatment. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 20(5):248-51, 2014
                                                                                      2. Bitti GT et al: Pelvic floor failure: MR imaging evaluation of anatomic and functional abnormalities. Radiographics. 34(2):429-48, 2014
                                                                                      3. Del Vescovo R et al: MRI role in morphological and functional assessment of the levator ani muscle: use in patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before and after pelvic floor rehabilitation. Eur J Radiol. 83(3):479-86, 2014
                                                                                      4. Farouk El Sayed R: The urogynecological side of pelvic floor MRI: the clinician's needs and the radiologist's role. Abdom Imaging. 38(5):912-29, 2013
                                                                                      5. Lammers K et al: Correlating signs and symptoms with pubovisceral muscle avulsions on magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 208(2):148, 2013
                                                                                      6. Surabhi VR et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of female urethral and periurethral disorders. Radiol Clin North Am. 51(6):941-53, 2013
                                                                                      7. Tasali N et al: MRI in stress urinary incontinence: endovaginal MRI with an intracavitary coil and dynamic pelvic MRI. Urol J. 9(1):397-404, 2012
                                                                                      8. Maglinte DD et al: Functional imaging of the pelvic floor. Radiology. 258(1):23-39, 2011
                                                                                      9. Haylen BT et al: An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. Int Urogynecol J. 21(1):5-26, 2010
                                                                                      10. Miller JM et al: MRI findings in patients considered high risk for pelvic floor injury studied serially after vaginal childbirth. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(3):786-91, 2010
                                                                                      11. Bennett GL et al: MRI of the urethra in women with lower urinary tract symptoms: spectrum of findings at static and dynamic imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(6):1708-15, 2009
                                                                                      12. El Sayed RF et al: Pelvic floor dysfunction: assessment with combined analysis of static and dynamic MR imaging findings. Radiology. 248(2):518-30, 2008
                                                                                      13. el-Sayed RF et al: Anatomy of the urethral supporting ligaments defined by dissection, histology, and MRI of female cadavers and MRI of healthy nulliparous women. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(5):1145-57, 2007
                                                                                      14. Macura KJ et al: MR imaging of the female urethra and supporting ligaments in assessment of urinary incontinence: spectrum of abnormalities. Radiographics. 26(4):1135-49, 2006
                                                                                      15. DeLancey JO: Structural support of the urethra as it relates to stress urinary incontinence: the hammock hypothesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 170(6):1713-20; discussion 1720-3, 1994