link
Bookmarks
Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Postoperative Imaging
Andrew Sonin, MD, FACR; Donna G. Blankenbaker, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
0
15
6
0

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Abbreviations

        • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
      • Definitions

        • Graft isometry
          • Refers to maintenance of constant length and tension of graft through normal range of motion
        • Blumensaat line: Slope of intercondylar notch roof in sagittal plane
        • Slope angle: Sagittal graft angle, measured relative to Blumensaat line
        • Cyclops lesion
          • Focal synovial hypertrophy and arthrofibrosis anterior to reconstructed ACL
          • "Hard" nodule: Restricts terminal knee extension
          • "Soft" cyclopoid scar: Less likely to cause motion restriction

      IMAGING

      • General Features

        • MR Findings

          • Imaging Recommendations

            PATHOLOGY

            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

              CLINICAL ISSUES

              • Presentation

                • Demographics

                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                    • Treatment

                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                      • Consider

                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                          • Reporting Tips

                            Selected References

                            1. Kiekara T et al: Tunnel communication and increased graft signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 30(12):1595-601, 2014
                            2. Ntoulia A et al: Evaluation with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament graft during its healing process: a two-year prospective study. Skeletal Radiol. 42(4):541-52, 2013
                            3. Ghazikhanian V et al: Tibial tunnel and pretibial cysts following ACL graft reconstruction: MR imaging diagnosis. Skeletal Radiol. 41(11):1375-9, 2012
                            4. Kiekara T et al: MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings. Skeletal Radiol. 41(7):835-42, 2012
                            5. Naraghi AM et al: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: MR imaging signs of anterior knee laxity in the presence of an intact graft. Radiology. 263(3):802-10, 2012
                            6. Bakhru P et al: MRI of broken bioabsorbable crosspin fixation in hamstring graft reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Skeletal Radiol. 40(6):737-43, 2011
                            7. Bencardino JT et al: MR imaging of complications of anterior cruciate ligament graft reconstruction. Radiographics. 29(7):2115-26, 2009
                            8. Casagranda BU et al: Normal appearance and complications of double-bundle and selective-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using optimal MRI techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 May;192(5):1407-15. Review. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(6):1454, 2009
                            9. Pritchett JW: Assisted reproduction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Knee Surg. 22(4):325-30, 2009
                            10. Takeda Y et al: In vivo magnetic resonance imaging measurement of tibiofemoral relation with different knee flexion angles after single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Arthroscopy. 25(7):733-41, 2009
                            11. Lee GH et al: The incidence of acute patellar tendon harvest complications for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 24(2):162-6, 2008
                            12. Pombo MW et al: Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: where are we today? Arthroscopy. 24(10):1168-77, 2008
                            13. McCauley TR: MR imaging evaluation of the postoperative knee. Radiology. 234(1):53-61, 2005
                            14. Papakonstantinou O et al: Complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 13(5):1106-17, 2003
                            15. Huang GS et al: Acute anterior cruciate ligament stump entrapment in anterior cruciate ligament tears: MR imaging appearance. Radiology. 225(2):537-40, 2002
                            16. Hodler J et al: The cruciate ligaments of the knee: correlation between MR appearance and gross and histologic findings in cadaveric specimens. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 159(2):357-60, 1992
                            Related Anatomy
                            Loading...
                            Related Differential Diagnoses
                            Loading...
                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                TERMINOLOGY

                                • Abbreviations

                                  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
                                • Definitions

                                  • Graft isometry
                                    • Refers to maintenance of constant length and tension of graft through normal range of motion
                                  • Blumensaat line: Slope of intercondylar notch roof in sagittal plane
                                  • Slope angle: Sagittal graft angle, measured relative to Blumensaat line
                                  • Cyclops lesion
                                    • Focal synovial hypertrophy and arthrofibrosis anterior to reconstructed ACL
                                    • "Hard" nodule: Restricts terminal knee extension
                                    • "Soft" cyclopoid scar: Less likely to cause motion restriction

                                IMAGING

                                • General Features

                                  • MR Findings

                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                      PATHOLOGY

                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                        • Presentation

                                          • Demographics

                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                              • Treatment

                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                • Consider

                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Kiekara T et al: Tunnel communication and increased graft signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 30(12):1595-601, 2014
                                                      2. Ntoulia A et al: Evaluation with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament graft during its healing process: a two-year prospective study. Skeletal Radiol. 42(4):541-52, 2013
                                                      3. Ghazikhanian V et al: Tibial tunnel and pretibial cysts following ACL graft reconstruction: MR imaging diagnosis. Skeletal Radiol. 41(11):1375-9, 2012
                                                      4. Kiekara T et al: MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings. Skeletal Radiol. 41(7):835-42, 2012
                                                      5. Naraghi AM et al: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: MR imaging signs of anterior knee laxity in the presence of an intact graft. Radiology. 263(3):802-10, 2012
                                                      6. Bakhru P et al: MRI of broken bioabsorbable crosspin fixation in hamstring graft reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Skeletal Radiol. 40(6):737-43, 2011
                                                      7. Bencardino JT et al: MR imaging of complications of anterior cruciate ligament graft reconstruction. Radiographics. 29(7):2115-26, 2009
                                                      8. Casagranda BU et al: Normal appearance and complications of double-bundle and selective-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using optimal MRI techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 May;192(5):1407-15. Review. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(6):1454, 2009
                                                      9. Pritchett JW: Assisted reproduction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Knee Surg. 22(4):325-30, 2009
                                                      10. Takeda Y et al: In vivo magnetic resonance imaging measurement of tibiofemoral relation with different knee flexion angles after single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Arthroscopy. 25(7):733-41, 2009
                                                      11. Lee GH et al: The incidence of acute patellar tendon harvest complications for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 24(2):162-6, 2008
                                                      12. Pombo MW et al: Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: where are we today? Arthroscopy. 24(10):1168-77, 2008
                                                      13. McCauley TR: MR imaging evaluation of the postoperative knee. Radiology. 234(1):53-61, 2005
                                                      14. Papakonstantinou O et al: Complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 13(5):1106-17, 2003
                                                      15. Huang GS et al: Acute anterior cruciate ligament stump entrapment in anterior cruciate ligament tears: MR imaging appearance. Radiology. 225(2):537-40, 2002
                                                      16. Hodler J et al: The cruciate ligaments of the knee: correlation between MR appearance and gross and histologic findings in cadaveric specimens. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 159(2):357-60, 1992