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Aortic Stenosis
Gudrun Feuchtner, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Aortic stenosis (AS)
            • Definitions

              • Narrowing of aortic outflow tract, which causes flow obstruction
                • Valvular (most common)
                • Subvalvular (rare)
                • Supravalvular (extremely rare)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Singh A et al: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of aortic stenosis. Heart. 105(6):489-97, 2019
                                                2. Nishimura RA et al: 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation: 129(23):e521-643, 2014
                                                3. Bull S et al: Human non-contrast T1 values and correlation with histology in diffuse fibrosis. Heart. 99(13):932-7, 2013
                                                4. Azevedo CF et al: Prognostic significance of myocardial fibrosis quantification by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with severe aortic valve disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 56(4):278-87, 2010
                                                5. Pflederer T et al: Aortic valve stenosis: CT contributions to diagnosis and therapy. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(6):355-64, 2010
                                                6. Ropers D et al: Comparison of dual-source computed tomography for the quantification of the aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis versus transthoracic echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic assessment. Am J Cardiol. 104(11):1561-7, 2009
                                                7. Abbara S et al: Feasibility and optimization of aortic valve planimetry with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 188(2):356-60, 2007
                                                8. Feuchtner GM et al: Sixty-four slice CT evaluation of aortic stenosis using planimetry of the aortic valve area. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(1):197-203, 2007
                                                9. Pouleur AC et al: Aortic valve area assessment: multidetector CT compared with cine MR imaging and transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Radiology. 244(3):745-54, 2007
                                                10. Alkadhi H et al: Aortic stenosis: comparative evaluation of 16-detector row CT and echocardiography. Radiology. 240(1):47-55, 2006
                                                11. Feuchtner GM et al: Multislice computed tomography for detection of patients with aortic valve stenosis and quantification of severity. J Am Coll Cardiol. 47(7):1410-7, 2006
                                                12. Rahimtoola SH: The year in valvular heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 47(2):427-39, 2006
                                                13. Braunwald E: Valvular heart disease. In Braunwald E: Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 2001
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Aortic stenosis (AS)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Narrowing of aortic outflow tract, which causes flow obstruction
                                                              • Valvular (most common)
                                                              • Subvalvular (rare)
                                                              • Supravalvular (extremely rare)

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Singh A et al: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of aortic stenosis. Heart. 105(6):489-97, 2019
                                                                                              2. Nishimura RA et al: 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation: 129(23):e521-643, 2014
                                                                                              3. Bull S et al: Human non-contrast T1 values and correlation with histology in diffuse fibrosis. Heart. 99(13):932-7, 2013
                                                                                              4. Azevedo CF et al: Prognostic significance of myocardial fibrosis quantification by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with severe aortic valve disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 56(4):278-87, 2010
                                                                                              5. Pflederer T et al: Aortic valve stenosis: CT contributions to diagnosis and therapy. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(6):355-64, 2010
                                                                                              6. Ropers D et al: Comparison of dual-source computed tomography for the quantification of the aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis versus transthoracic echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic assessment. Am J Cardiol. 104(11):1561-7, 2009
                                                                                              7. Abbara S et al: Feasibility and optimization of aortic valve planimetry with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 188(2):356-60, 2007
                                                                                              8. Feuchtner GM et al: Sixty-four slice CT evaluation of aortic stenosis using planimetry of the aortic valve area. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(1):197-203, 2007
                                                                                              9. Pouleur AC et al: Aortic valve area assessment: multidetector CT compared with cine MR imaging and transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Radiology. 244(3):745-54, 2007
                                                                                              10. Alkadhi H et al: Aortic stenosis: comparative evaluation of 16-detector row CT and echocardiography. Radiology. 240(1):47-55, 2006
                                                                                              11. Feuchtner GM et al: Multislice computed tomography for detection of patients with aortic valve stenosis and quantification of severity. J Am Coll Cardiol. 47(7):1410-7, 2006
                                                                                              12. Rahimtoola SH: The year in valvular heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 47(2):427-39, 2006
                                                                                              13. Braunwald E: Valvular heart disease. In Braunwald E: Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 2001