link
Bookmarks
Appendicitis
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
0
42
0
18

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Acute obstruction of appendiceal lumen → distention → ↑ intraluminal pressure → venous obstruction → ischemia → superimposed infection of appendiceal wall → eventual perforation

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Dillman JR et al: Equivocal pediatric appendicitis: unenhanced MR imaging protocol for nonsedated children - a clinical effectiveness study. Radiology. 279(1):216-25, 2016
                                      2. Duke E et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of MRI for evaluation of acute appendicitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 206(3):508-17, 2016
                                      3. Repplinger MD et al: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the accuracy of MRI to diagnose appendicitis in the general population. J Magn Reson Imaging. 43(6):1346-54, 2016
                                      4. Swenson DW et al: MRI of the normal appendix in children: data toward a new reference standard. Pediatr Radiol. 46(7):1003-10, 2016
                                      5. Betancourt SL et al: The 'wandering appendicolith' Pediatr Radiol. 45(7):1091-4, 2015
                                      6. Kulaylat AN et al: An implemented MRI program to eliminate radiation from the evaluation of pediatric appendicitis. J Pediatr Surg. 50(8):1359-63, 2015
                                      7. Svensson JF et al: Nonoperative treatment with antibiotics versus surgery for acute nonperforated appendicitis in children: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 261(1):67-71, 2015
                                      8. Tulin-Silver S et al: The challenging ultrasound diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in children: constellations of sonographic findings improve specificity. Pediatr Radiol. 45(6):820-30, 2015
                                      9. Aspelund G et al: Ultrasonography/MRI versus CT for diagnosing appendicitis. Pediatrics. 133(4):586-93, 2014
                                      10. Coyne SM et al: Does appendiceal diameter change with age? A sonographic study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(5):1120-6, 2014
                                      11. Newman B et al: Perforated appendicitis: an underappreciated mimic of intussusception on ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol. 44(5):535-41, 2014
                                      12. Orth RC et al: Prospective comparison of MR imaging and US for the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. Radiology. 272(1):233-40, 2014
                                      13. Rosines LA et al: Value of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in detection of acute appendicitis in children and adolescents. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(5):W543-8, 2014
                                      14. Trout AT et al: Journal club: the pediatric appendix: defining normal. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(5):936-45, 2014
                                      15. Dietz KR et al: Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging of additional pathologies of the pediatric appendix. Pediatr Radiol. 43(2):232-42; quiz 259, 2013
                                      16. Trout AT et al: Reevaluating the sonographic criteria for acute appendicitis in children: a review of the literature and a retrospective analysis of 246 cases. Acad Radiol. 19(11):1382-94, 2012
                                      17. Trout AT et al: A critical evaluation of US for the diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis in a real-life setting: how can we improve the diagnostic value of sonography? Pediatr Radiol. 42(7):813-23, 2012
                                      18. Krishnamoorthi R et al: Effectiveness of a staged US and CT protocol for the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis: reducing radiation exposure in the age of ALARA. Radiology. 259(1):231-9, 2011
                                      19. Frush DP et al: Imaging of acute appendicitis in children: EU versus U.S. ... or US versus CT? A North American perspective. Pediatr Radiol. 39(5):500-5, 2009
                                      20. Garcia K et al: Suspected appendicitis in children: diagnostic importance of normal abdominopelvic CT findings with nonvisualized appendix. Radiology. 250(2):531-7, 2009
                                      21. Holscher HC et al: Imaging of acute appendicitis in children: EU versus U.S. ... or US versus CT? A European perspective. Pediatr Radiol. 39(5):497-9, 2009
                                      22. Taylor GA et al: CT for suspected appendicitis in children: an analysis of diagnostic errors. Pediatr Radiol. 36(4):331-7, 2006
                                      Related Anatomy
                                      Loading...
                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
                                      Loading...
                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Acute obstruction of appendiceal lumen → distention → ↑ intraluminal pressure → venous obstruction → ischemia → superimposed infection of appendiceal wall → eventual perforation

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Dillman JR et al: Equivocal pediatric appendicitis: unenhanced MR imaging protocol for nonsedated children - a clinical effectiveness study. Radiology. 279(1):216-25, 2016
                                                                          2. Duke E et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of MRI for evaluation of acute appendicitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 206(3):508-17, 2016
                                                                          3. Repplinger MD et al: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the accuracy of MRI to diagnose appendicitis in the general population. J Magn Reson Imaging. 43(6):1346-54, 2016
                                                                          4. Swenson DW et al: MRI of the normal appendix in children: data toward a new reference standard. Pediatr Radiol. 46(7):1003-10, 2016
                                                                          5. Betancourt SL et al: The 'wandering appendicolith' Pediatr Radiol. 45(7):1091-4, 2015
                                                                          6. Kulaylat AN et al: An implemented MRI program to eliminate radiation from the evaluation of pediatric appendicitis. J Pediatr Surg. 50(8):1359-63, 2015
                                                                          7. Svensson JF et al: Nonoperative treatment with antibiotics versus surgery for acute nonperforated appendicitis in children: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 261(1):67-71, 2015
                                                                          8. Tulin-Silver S et al: The challenging ultrasound diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in children: constellations of sonographic findings improve specificity. Pediatr Radiol. 45(6):820-30, 2015
                                                                          9. Aspelund G et al: Ultrasonography/MRI versus CT for diagnosing appendicitis. Pediatrics. 133(4):586-93, 2014
                                                                          10. Coyne SM et al: Does appendiceal diameter change with age? A sonographic study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(5):1120-6, 2014
                                                                          11. Newman B et al: Perforated appendicitis: an underappreciated mimic of intussusception on ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol. 44(5):535-41, 2014
                                                                          12. Orth RC et al: Prospective comparison of MR imaging and US for the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. Radiology. 272(1):233-40, 2014
                                                                          13. Rosines LA et al: Value of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in detection of acute appendicitis in children and adolescents. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(5):W543-8, 2014
                                                                          14. Trout AT et al: Journal club: the pediatric appendix: defining normal. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(5):936-45, 2014
                                                                          15. Dietz KR et al: Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging of additional pathologies of the pediatric appendix. Pediatr Radiol. 43(2):232-42; quiz 259, 2013
                                                                          16. Trout AT et al: Reevaluating the sonographic criteria for acute appendicitis in children: a review of the literature and a retrospective analysis of 246 cases. Acad Radiol. 19(11):1382-94, 2012
                                                                          17. Trout AT et al: A critical evaluation of US for the diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis in a real-life setting: how can we improve the diagnostic value of sonography? Pediatr Radiol. 42(7):813-23, 2012
                                                                          18. Krishnamoorthi R et al: Effectiveness of a staged US and CT protocol for the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis: reducing radiation exposure in the age of ALARA. Radiology. 259(1):231-9, 2011
                                                                          19. Frush DP et al: Imaging of acute appendicitis in children: EU versus U.S. ... or US versus CT? A North American perspective. Pediatr Radiol. 39(5):500-5, 2009
                                                                          20. Garcia K et al: Suspected appendicitis in children: diagnostic importance of normal abdominopelvic CT findings with nonvisualized appendix. Radiology. 250(2):531-7, 2009
                                                                          21. Holscher HC et al: Imaging of acute appendicitis in children: EU versus U.S. ... or US versus CT? A European perspective. Pediatr Radiol. 39(5):497-9, 2009
                                                                          22. Taylor GA et al: CT for suspected appendicitis in children: an analysis of diagnostic errors. Pediatr Radiol. 36(4):331-7, 2006