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Arachnoiditis/Adhesions
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Postinflammatory changes involving spinal cord, cauda equina, and thecal sac

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Griessenauer CJ et al: Surgical manifestations of thoracic arachnoid pathology: series of 28 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 20(1):30-40, 2014
                                            2. Willson MC et al: Postoperative spine complications. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 24(2):305-26, 2014
                                            3. Ginanneschi F et al: Arachnoid cyst and arachnoiditis following idiopathic spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurg. 22(4):578-9, 2008
                                            4. Petty PG et al: Symptomatic lumbar spinal arachnoiditis: fact or fallacy? J Clin Neurosci. 7(5):395-9, 2000
                                            5. Ross JS: Magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):281-91, 2000
                                            6. Long DM: Chronic adhesive spinal arachnoiditis: pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment. Neurosurg Q. 2(4):296-318, 1992
                                            7. Sklar EM et al: Complications of epidural anesthesia: MR appearance of abnormalities. Radiology. 181(2):549-54, 1991
                                            8. Caplan LR et al: Syringomyelia and arachnoiditis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 53(2):106-13, 1990
                                            9. Delamarter RB et al: Diagnosis of lumbar arachnoiditis by magnetic resonance imaging. Spine. 15(4):304-10, 1990
                                            10. Johnson CE et al: Benign lumbar arachnoiditis: MR imaging with gadopentetate dimeglumine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 155(4):873-80, 1990
                                            11. Augustijn P et al: Chronic spinal arachnoiditis following intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 91(4):347-50, 1989
                                            12. Sklar E et al: Acquired spinal subarachnoid cysts: evaluation with MR, CT myelography, and intraoperative sonography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 10(5):1097-104, 1989
                                            13. Ross JS et al: MR imaging of lumbar arachnoiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(5):1025-32, 1987
                                            14. Burton CV et al: Causes of failure of surgery on the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop. (157):191-9, 1981
                                            15. Quiles M et al: Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis. Etiologic and pathologic aspects. Spine. 3(1):45-50, 1978
                                            16. Quencer RM et al: The postoperative myelogram. Radiographic evaluation of arachnoiditis and dural/arachnoidal tears. Radiology. 123(3):667-79, 1977
                                            17. Jorgensen J et al: A clinical and radiological study of chronic lower spinal arachnoiditis. Neuroradiology. 9(3):139-44, 1975
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Postinflammatory changes involving spinal cord, cauda equina, and thecal sac

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Griessenauer CJ et al: Surgical manifestations of thoracic arachnoid pathology: series of 28 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 20(1):30-40, 2014
                                                                                      2. Willson MC et al: Postoperative spine complications. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 24(2):305-26, 2014
                                                                                      3. Ginanneschi F et al: Arachnoid cyst and arachnoiditis following idiopathic spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurg. 22(4):578-9, 2008
                                                                                      4. Petty PG et al: Symptomatic lumbar spinal arachnoiditis: fact or fallacy? J Clin Neurosci. 7(5):395-9, 2000
                                                                                      5. Ross JS: Magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):281-91, 2000
                                                                                      6. Long DM: Chronic adhesive spinal arachnoiditis: pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment. Neurosurg Q. 2(4):296-318, 1992
                                                                                      7. Sklar EM et al: Complications of epidural anesthesia: MR appearance of abnormalities. Radiology. 181(2):549-54, 1991
                                                                                      8. Caplan LR et al: Syringomyelia and arachnoiditis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 53(2):106-13, 1990
                                                                                      9. Delamarter RB et al: Diagnosis of lumbar arachnoiditis by magnetic resonance imaging. Spine. 15(4):304-10, 1990
                                                                                      10. Johnson CE et al: Benign lumbar arachnoiditis: MR imaging with gadopentetate dimeglumine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 155(4):873-80, 1990
                                                                                      11. Augustijn P et al: Chronic spinal arachnoiditis following intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 91(4):347-50, 1989
                                                                                      12. Sklar E et al: Acquired spinal subarachnoid cysts: evaluation with MR, CT myelography, and intraoperative sonography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 10(5):1097-104, 1989
                                                                                      13. Ross JS et al: MR imaging of lumbar arachnoiditis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(5):1025-32, 1987
                                                                                      14. Burton CV et al: Causes of failure of surgery on the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop. (157):191-9, 1981
                                                                                      15. Quiles M et al: Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis. Etiologic and pathologic aspects. Spine. 3(1):45-50, 1978
                                                                                      16. Quencer RM et al: The postoperative myelogram. Radiographic evaluation of arachnoiditis and dural/arachnoidal tears. Radiology. 123(3):667-79, 1977
                                                                                      17. Jorgensen J et al: A clinical and radiological study of chronic lower spinal arachnoiditis. Neuroradiology. 9(3):139-44, 1975