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Arteriovenous Fistula
T. Gregory Walker, MD, FSIR; Roy Bryan, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF): Abnormal direct communication between adjacent artery and vein
              • Usually acquired but sometimes may be congenital
            • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): Congenital abnormal arteriovenous (AV) communication
              • Typically has central vascular nidus
                • Enlarges through recruitment of additional feeding arteries and draining veins

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • CT Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Garg N et al: Contemporary management of giant renal and visceral arteriovenous fistulae. J Endovasc Ther. 18(6):811-8, 2011
                                        2. Sexton JA et al: Endovascular approaches to arteriovenous fistula. Adv Surg. 45:83-100, 2011
                                        3. González SB et al: Imaging arteriovenous fistulas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(5):1425-33, 2009
                                        4. Spirito R et al: Endovascular treatment of a post-traumatic tibial pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula: case report and review of the literature. J Vasc Surg. 45(5):1076-9, 2007
                                        5. Ray CE Jr et al: Endovascular repair of a large post-traumatic calf pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula. Mil Med. 171(7):659-61, 2006
                                        6. Durakoglugil ME et al: High output heart failure 8 months after an acquired arteriovenous fistula. Jpn Heart J. 44(5):805-9, 2003
                                        7. Li JC et al: Diagnostic criteria for locating acquired arteriovenous fistulas with color Doppler sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 30(6):336-42, 2002
                                        8. Sigler L et al: Aortocava fistula: experience with five patients. Vasc Surg. 35(3):207-12, 2001
                                        9. Chen L et al: Surgical treatment of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas. Chin J Traumatol. 3(3):163-165, 2000
                                        10. Picus D et al: Iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulae: evaluation by digital vascular imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 142(3):567-70, 1984
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF): Abnormal direct communication between adjacent artery and vein
                                                    • Usually acquired but sometimes may be congenital
                                                  • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): Congenital abnormal arteriovenous (AV) communication
                                                    • Typically has central vascular nidus
                                                      • Enlarges through recruitment of additional feeding arteries and draining veins

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • Angiographic Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Garg N et al: Contemporary management of giant renal and visceral arteriovenous fistulae. J Endovasc Ther. 18(6):811-8, 2011
                                                                              2. Sexton JA et al: Endovascular approaches to arteriovenous fistula. Adv Surg. 45:83-100, 2011
                                                                              3. González SB et al: Imaging arteriovenous fistulas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(5):1425-33, 2009
                                                                              4. Spirito R et al: Endovascular treatment of a post-traumatic tibial pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula: case report and review of the literature. J Vasc Surg. 45(5):1076-9, 2007
                                                                              5. Ray CE Jr et al: Endovascular repair of a large post-traumatic calf pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula. Mil Med. 171(7):659-61, 2006
                                                                              6. Durakoglugil ME et al: High output heart failure 8 months after an acquired arteriovenous fistula. Jpn Heart J. 44(5):805-9, 2003
                                                                              7. Li JC et al: Diagnostic criteria for locating acquired arteriovenous fistulas with color Doppler sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 30(6):336-42, 2002
                                                                              8. Sigler L et al: Aortocava fistula: experience with five patients. Vasc Surg. 35(3):207-12, 2001
                                                                              9. Chen L et al: Surgical treatment of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas. Chin J Traumatol. 3(3):163-165, 2000
                                                                              10. Picus D et al: Iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulae: evaluation by digital vascular imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 142(3):567-70, 1984