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Arteriovenous Fistula
Anne Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
            • Definitions

              • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is abnormal arterial-to-venous connection without intervening capillary network
                • Vein of Galen malformation is specific, named AVF

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Giorgi L et al: Management and outcomes of neonatal arteriovenous brain malformations with cardiac failure: a 17 years' experience in a tertiary referral center. J Pediatr. 218:85-91.e2, 2020
                                    2. Lv X et al: Pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunts: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 25:29-39, 2020
                                    3. Palmyre A et al: Prenatal molecular diagnosis in RASA1-related disease. Prenat Diagn. 37(12):1261-4, 2017
                                    4. Pedicelli A et al: Prenatal diagnosis and multimodal neonatal treatment of a rare pial arteriovenous fistula: case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg. 104:1050.e13-18, 2017
                                    5. Karl K et al: Ultrasound of the fetal veins part 3: the fetal intracerebral venous system. Ultraschall Med. 37(1):6-26, 2016
                                    6. Jagadeesan BD et al: The role of percutaneous embolization techniques in the management of dural sinus malformations with atypical angioarchitecture in neonates: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 16(1):74-9, 2015
                                    7. Zaidi HA et al: Multimodal treatment strategies for complex pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas: contemporary case series at Barrow Neurological Institute. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-10, 2015
                                    8. Appaduray SP et al: Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(1):16-22, 2014
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is abnormal arterial-to-venous connection without intervening capillary network
                                                  • Vein of Galen malformation is specific, named AVF

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Giorgi L et al: Management and outcomes of neonatal arteriovenous brain malformations with cardiac failure: a 17 years' experience in a tertiary referral center. J Pediatr. 218:85-91.e2, 2020
                                                                      2. Lv X et al: Pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunts: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 25:29-39, 2020
                                                                      3. Palmyre A et al: Prenatal molecular diagnosis in RASA1-related disease. Prenat Diagn. 37(12):1261-4, 2017
                                                                      4. Pedicelli A et al: Prenatal diagnosis and multimodal neonatal treatment of a rare pial arteriovenous fistula: case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg. 104:1050.e13-18, 2017
                                                                      5. Karl K et al: Ultrasound of the fetal veins part 3: the fetal intracerebral venous system. Ultraschall Med. 37(1):6-26, 2016
                                                                      6. Jagadeesan BD et al: The role of percutaneous embolization techniques in the management of dural sinus malformations with atypical angioarchitecture in neonates: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 16(1):74-9, 2015
                                                                      7. Zaidi HA et al: Multimodal treatment strategies for complex pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas: contemporary case series at Barrow Neurological Institute. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-10, 2015
                                                                      8. Appaduray SP et al: Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(1):16-22, 2014