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Arteriovenous Fistula
Anne M. Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Arteriovenous malformation
            • Definitions

              • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is abnormal arterial to venous connection without intervening capillary network
                • Vein of Galen malformation is specific, named AVF

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Jagadeesan BD et al: The role of percutaneous embolization techniques in the management of dural sinus malformations with atypical angioarchitecture in neonates: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 16(1):74-9, 2015
                                    2. Zaidi HA et al: Multimodal treatment strategies for complex pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas: contemporary case series at Barrow Neurological Institute. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-10, 2015
                                    3. Appaduray SP et al: Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(1):16-22, 2014
                                    4. Garel C et al: Pial arteriovenous fistulas: dilemmas in prenatal diagnosis, counseling and postnatal treatment. Report of three cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(3):293-6, 2005
                                    5. Kelly A et al: Antenatal course of a fetal intracranial arteriovenous fistula: a case report. J Reprod Med. 50(5):367-9, 2005
                                    6. Strigini FA et al: Second-trimester diagnosis of intracranial vascular anomalies in a fetus with subdural hemorrhage. Prenat Diagn. 24(1):31-4, 2004
                                    7. Kush ML et al: Lethal progression of a fetal intracranial arteriovenous malformation. J Ultrasound Med. 22(6):645-8, 2003
                                    8. Baldoli C et al: Demonstration of acute ischemic lesions in the fetal brain by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol. 52(2):243-6, 2002
                                    9. Nakayama H et al: Multiple cerebral arteriovenous fistulas and malformations in the neonate. Pediatr Neurol. 25(3):236-8, 2001
                                    10. Keck C et al: Fetal cerebral AV-malformation and cardiomegaly, diagnostic and therapeutic problems. J Perinat Med. 26(3):225-30, 1998
                                    11. Paladini D et al: Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous fistula. Obstet Gynecol. 88(4 Pt 2):678-81, 1996
                                    12. Sepulveda W et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation using color Doppler ultrasonography: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(4):282-6, 1995
                                    13. Sekhon LH et al: Syndactyly and intracranial arteriovenous malformation: case report. Br J Neurosurg. 8(3):377-80, 1994
                                    14. Dan U et al: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal brain arteriovenous malformation: the use of color Doppler imaging. J Clin Ultrasound. 20(2):149-51, 1992
                                    15. Koven MB et al: Fetal intracranial AVM presenting as enlarged cardiac chamber. J Ultrasound Med. 11(4):177, 1992
                                    16. Tomlinson FH et al: Remote congenital cerebral arteriovenous fistulae associated with aortic coarctation. Case report. J Neurosurg. 76(1):137-42, 1992
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Arteriovenous malformation
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is abnormal arterial to venous connection without intervening capillary network
                                                  • Vein of Galen malformation is specific, named AVF

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Jagadeesan BD et al: The role of percutaneous embolization techniques in the management of dural sinus malformations with atypical angioarchitecture in neonates: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 16(1):74-9, 2015
                                                                      2. Zaidi HA et al: Multimodal treatment strategies for complex pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas: contemporary case series at Barrow Neurological Institute. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-10, 2015
                                                                      3. Appaduray SP et al: Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(1):16-22, 2014
                                                                      4. Garel C et al: Pial arteriovenous fistulas: dilemmas in prenatal diagnosis, counseling and postnatal treatment. Report of three cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 26(3):293-6, 2005
                                                                      5. Kelly A et al: Antenatal course of a fetal intracranial arteriovenous fistula: a case report. J Reprod Med. 50(5):367-9, 2005
                                                                      6. Strigini FA et al: Second-trimester diagnosis of intracranial vascular anomalies in a fetus with subdural hemorrhage. Prenat Diagn. 24(1):31-4, 2004
                                                                      7. Kush ML et al: Lethal progression of a fetal intracranial arteriovenous malformation. J Ultrasound Med. 22(6):645-8, 2003
                                                                      8. Baldoli C et al: Demonstration of acute ischemic lesions in the fetal brain by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol. 52(2):243-6, 2002
                                                                      9. Nakayama H et al: Multiple cerebral arteriovenous fistulas and malformations in the neonate. Pediatr Neurol. 25(3):236-8, 2001
                                                                      10. Keck C et al: Fetal cerebral AV-malformation and cardiomegaly, diagnostic and therapeutic problems. J Perinat Med. 26(3):225-30, 1998
                                                                      11. Paladini D et al: Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous fistula. Obstet Gynecol. 88(4 Pt 2):678-81, 1996
                                                                      12. Sepulveda W et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation using color Doppler ultrasonography: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(4):282-6, 1995
                                                                      13. Sekhon LH et al: Syndactyly and intracranial arteriovenous malformation: case report. Br J Neurosurg. 8(3):377-80, 1994
                                                                      14. Dan U et al: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal brain arteriovenous malformation: the use of color Doppler imaging. J Clin Ultrasound. 20(2):149-51, 1992
                                                                      15. Koven MB et al: Fetal intracranial AVM presenting as enlarged cardiac chamber. J Ultrasound Med. 11(4):177, 1992
                                                                      16. Tomlinson FH et al: Remote congenital cerebral arteriovenous fistulae associated with aortic coarctation. Case report. J Neurosurg. 76(1):137-42, 1992