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Arteriovenous Malformation
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
        • Definitions

          • Pial vascular malformation with direct artery → vein arteriovenous (AV) shunting, no intervening capillary bed

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Angiographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Feghali J et al: Updates in arteriovenous malformation management: the post-ARUBA era. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 5(1):34-9, 2020
                                        2. Hong JM et al: Role of activin receptor-like kinase 1 in vascular development and cerebrovascular diseases. Neural Regen Res. 15(10):1807-13, 2020
                                        3. Järvelin P et al: Histopathology of brain AVMs part I: microhemorrhages and changes in the nidal vessels. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 162(7):1735-40, 2020
                                        4. Lv X et al: Pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunts: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 25:29-39, 2020
                                        5. Sun W et al: Outcome comparison between surgically treated brain arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                        6. Tayebi Meybodi A et al: Modern radiosurgical and endovascular classification schemes for brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Rev. 43(1):49-58, 2020
                                        7. Vella M et al: Comparison of MRI, MRA, and DSA for detection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(6):969-75, 2020
                                        8. Zafar A et al: Cerebral vascular malformations and their imaging modalities. Neurol Sci. ePub, 2020
                                        9. De Maria L et al: Transitional venous anomalies and DVAs draining brain AVMs: a single-institution case series and review of the literature. J Clin Neurosci. 66:165-77, 2019
                                        10. Hong T et al: High prevalence of KRAS/BRAF somatic mutations in brain and spinal cord arteriovenous malformations. Brain. 142(1):23-34, 2019
                                        11. Scimone C et al: Vis-à-vis: a focus on genetic features of cerebral cavernous malformations and brain arteriovenous malformations pathogenesis. Neurol Sci. 40(2):243-51, 2019
                                        12. Shaligram SS et al: Risk factors for hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformation. CNS Neurosci Ther. 25(10):1085-95, 2019
                                        13. Goldberg J et al: Natural history of brain arteriovenous malformations: systematic review. J Neurosurg Sci. 62(4):437-43, 2018
                                        14. Shankar JJ et al: Angioarchitecture of brain AVM determines the presentation with seizures: proposed scoring system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(5):1028-34, 2013
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Pial vascular malformation with direct artery → vein arteriovenous (AV) shunting, no intervening capillary bed

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Feghali J et al: Updates in arteriovenous malformation management: the post-ARUBA era. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 5(1):34-9, 2020
                                                                              2. Hong JM et al: Role of activin receptor-like kinase 1 in vascular development and cerebrovascular diseases. Neural Regen Res. 15(10):1807-13, 2020
                                                                              3. Järvelin P et al: Histopathology of brain AVMs part I: microhemorrhages and changes in the nidal vessels. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 162(7):1735-40, 2020
                                                                              4. Lv X et al: Pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunts: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 25:29-39, 2020
                                                                              5. Sun W et al: Outcome comparison between surgically treated brain arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                                                              6. Tayebi Meybodi A et al: Modern radiosurgical and endovascular classification schemes for brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Rev. 43(1):49-58, 2020
                                                                              7. Vella M et al: Comparison of MRI, MRA, and DSA for detection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(6):969-75, 2020
                                                                              8. Zafar A et al: Cerebral vascular malformations and their imaging modalities. Neurol Sci. ePub, 2020
                                                                              9. De Maria L et al: Transitional venous anomalies and DVAs draining brain AVMs: a single-institution case series and review of the literature. J Clin Neurosci. 66:165-77, 2019
                                                                              10. Hong T et al: High prevalence of KRAS/BRAF somatic mutations in brain and spinal cord arteriovenous malformations. Brain. 142(1):23-34, 2019
                                                                              11. Scimone C et al: Vis-à-vis: a focus on genetic features of cerebral cavernous malformations and brain arteriovenous malformations pathogenesis. Neurol Sci. 40(2):243-51, 2019
                                                                              12. Shaligram SS et al: Risk factors for hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformation. CNS Neurosci Ther. 25(10):1085-95, 2019
                                                                              13. Goldberg J et al: Natural history of brain arteriovenous malformations: systematic review. J Neurosurg Sci. 62(4):437-43, 2018
                                                                              14. Shankar JJ et al: Angioarchitecture of brain AVM determines the presentation with seizures: proposed scoring system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(5):1028-34, 2013