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Aspiration
Tomás Franquet, MD, PhD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Aspiration pneumonia: Lung infection caused by aspiration of colonized oropharyngeal secretions
            • Aspiration pneumonitis: Acute lung injury caused by aspiration of material inherently toxic to lungs
            • Aspiration bronchiolitis: Chronic inflammatory reaction to recurrent aspirated foreign particles in bronchioles
          • Definitions

            • Aspiration syndromes
              • Aspiration pneumonia: Most hospital-acquired infections
                • Lentil aspiration pneumonia: Leguminous material (lentils, beans, peas)
                • Fistulas between esophagus & trachea, bronchi or lung: Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula; esophageal cancer (5-10%)
              • Aspiration pneumonitis
                • Mendelson syndrome: Sterile gastric contents (peripartum, anesthesia)
                • Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: Mineral oil or related substances
                • Hydrocarbon aspiration pneumonia
                  • Children: Accidental poisoning
                  • Fire-eaters: Hydrocarbon-containing fluids
              • Aspiration of inert fluids or particulates
                • Foreign bodies: Food particles (children); tooth fragments (elderly)
                • Near drowning: Massive amount of aspirated fresh or salt water
              • Aspiration bronchiolitis: Obliterative bronchiolitis & gastroesophageal reflux (mimics asthma)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          Selected References

                          1. Marchiori E et al: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Clinical and radiological manifestations. Respir Med. 105(5):659-66, 2011
                          2. Marik PE: Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 344(9):665-71, 2001
                          3. Franquet T et al: Aspiration diseases: findings, pitfalls, and differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 20(3):673-85, 2000
                          4. Marom EM et al: The many faces of pulmonary aspiration. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(1):121-8, 1999
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          KEY FACTS

                          • Terminology

                            • Imaging

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Clinical Issues

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Synonyms

                                    • Aspiration pneumonia: Lung infection caused by aspiration of colonized oropharyngeal secretions
                                    • Aspiration pneumonitis: Acute lung injury caused by aspiration of material inherently toxic to lungs
                                    • Aspiration bronchiolitis: Chronic inflammatory reaction to recurrent aspirated foreign particles in bronchioles
                                  • Definitions

                                    • Aspiration syndromes
                                      • Aspiration pneumonia: Most hospital-acquired infections
                                        • Lentil aspiration pneumonia: Leguminous material (lentils, beans, peas)
                                        • Fistulas between esophagus & trachea, bronchi or lung: Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula; esophageal cancer (5-10%)
                                      • Aspiration pneumonitis
                                        • Mendelson syndrome: Sterile gastric contents (peripartum, anesthesia)
                                        • Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: Mineral oil or related substances
                                        • Hydrocarbon aspiration pneumonia
                                          • Children: Accidental poisoning
                                          • Fire-eaters: Hydrocarbon-containing fluids
                                      • Aspiration of inert fluids or particulates
                                        • Foreign bodies: Food particles (children); tooth fragments (elderly)
                                        • Near drowning: Massive amount of aspirated fresh or salt water
                                      • Aspiration bronchiolitis: Obliterative bronchiolitis & gastroesophageal reflux (mimics asthma)

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                • Presentation

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Marchiori E et al: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Clinical and radiological manifestations. Respir Med. 105(5):659-66, 2011
                                                  2. Marik PE: Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 344(9):665-71, 2001
                                                  3. Franquet T et al: Aspiration diseases: findings, pitfalls, and differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 20(3):673-85, 2000
                                                  4. Marom EM et al: The many faces of pulmonary aspiration. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(1):121-8, 1999