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Atrial Septal Defect
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP; Randy R. Richardson, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Atrial septal defect (ASD)
            • Congenital heart disease (CHD)
          • Definitions

            • ASD: Defect(s) in cardiac atrial septum; may be isolated anomaly or associated with other congenital heart lesions
            • Left-to-right (LTR) shunt: Blood from left heart bypasses systemic circulation to enter right heart
              • Most ASD sequelae related to long-term LTR shunting

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Treatment

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Geva T et al: Atrial septal defects. Lancet. 383(9932):1921-32, 2014
                                  2. Song J: Comprehensive understanding of atrial septal defects by imaging studies for successful transcatheter closure. Korean J Pediatr. 57(7):297-303, 2014
                                  3. Zvaigzne CG et al: Atrial shunts: presentation, investigation, and management, including recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiol Young. 24(3):403-16, 2014
                                  4. Prompona M et al: MRI for detection of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in patients with sinus venosus atrial septal defects. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 27(3):403-12, 2011
                                  5. Quaife RA et al: Pre-procedural planning for percutaneous atrial septal defect closure: transesophageal echocardiography compared with cardiac computed tomographic angiography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(5):330-8, 2010
                                  6. Rojas CA et al: Embryology and developmental defects of the interatrial septum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(5):1100-4, 2010
                                  7. Teo KS et al: Assessment of atrial septal defects in adults comparing cardiovascular magnetic resonance with transoesophageal echocardiography. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 12:44, 2010
                                  8. Garcia JA et al: On-line multi-slice computed tomography interactive overlay with conventional X-ray: a new and advanced imaging fusion concept. Int J Cardiol. 133(3):e101-5, 2009
                                  9. Beerbaum P et al: Atrial septal defects in pediatric patients: noninvasive sizing with cardiovascular MR imaging. Radiology. 228(2):361-9, 2003
                                  10. Lapierre C et al: Evaluation of a large atrial septal occluder with cardiac MR imaging. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S51-8, 2003
                                  11. Wang ZJ et al: Cardiovascular shunts: MR imaging evaluation. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S181-94, 2003
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Atrial septal defect (ASD)
                                            • Congenital heart disease (CHD)
                                          • Definitions

                                            • ASD: Defect(s) in cardiac atrial septum; may be isolated anomaly or associated with other congenital heart lesions
                                            • Left-to-right (LTR) shunt: Blood from left heart bypasses systemic circulation to enter right heart
                                              • Most ASD sequelae related to long-term LTR shunting

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Geva T et al: Atrial septal defects. Lancet. 383(9932):1921-32, 2014
                                                                  2. Song J: Comprehensive understanding of atrial septal defects by imaging studies for successful transcatheter closure. Korean J Pediatr. 57(7):297-303, 2014
                                                                  3. Zvaigzne CG et al: Atrial shunts: presentation, investigation, and management, including recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiol Young. 24(3):403-16, 2014
                                                                  4. Prompona M et al: MRI for detection of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in patients with sinus venosus atrial septal defects. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 27(3):403-12, 2011
                                                                  5. Quaife RA et al: Pre-procedural planning for percutaneous atrial septal defect closure: transesophageal echocardiography compared with cardiac computed tomographic angiography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(5):330-8, 2010
                                                                  6. Rojas CA et al: Embryology and developmental defects of the interatrial septum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(5):1100-4, 2010
                                                                  7. Teo KS et al: Assessment of atrial septal defects in adults comparing cardiovascular magnetic resonance with transoesophageal echocardiography. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 12:44, 2010
                                                                  8. Garcia JA et al: On-line multi-slice computed tomography interactive overlay with conventional X-ray: a new and advanced imaging fusion concept. Int J Cardiol. 133(3):e101-5, 2009
                                                                  9. Beerbaum P et al: Atrial septal defects in pediatric patients: noninvasive sizing with cardiovascular MR imaging. Radiology. 228(2):361-9, 2003
                                                                  10. Lapierre C et al: Evaluation of a large atrial septal occluder with cardiac MR imaging. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S51-8, 2003
                                                                  11. Wang ZJ et al: Cardiovascular shunts: MR imaging evaluation. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S181-94, 2003