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Atypical Infectious Diseases
Todd Michael Danziger, MD; Hollins Clark, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Atypical pneumonias and opportunistic infections
            • Affect patients with HIV, cancer, or those on immunosuppressive therapy (for collagen vascular disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, post transplant)

        IMAGING

        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

          • Imaging Recommendations

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              CLINICAL ISSUES

              • Demographics

                • Natural History & Prognosis

                  • Treatment

                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                    • Consider

                      Selected References

                      1. Zanoni BC et al: Update on opportunistic infections in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 28(3):501-518, 2014
                      2. Pupaibool J et al: Other HIV-associated pneumonias. Clin Chest Med. 34(2):243-54, 2013
                      3. Sathekge M et al: FDG-PET imaging in HIV infection and tuberculosis. Semin Nucl Med. 43(5):349-66, 2013
                      4. Sathekge M et al: Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. Nucl Med Commun. 33(6):581-90, 2012
                      5. Liu Y: Demonstrations of AIDS-associated malignancies and infections at FDG PET-CT. Ann Nucl Med. 25(8):536-46, 2011
                      6. Nakazato T et al: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia detected by FDG-PET. Ann Hematol. 89(8):839-40, 2010
                      7. Palestro J et al. Society of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guideline for Gallium Scintigraphy in Inflammation. http://snmmi.files.cms-plus.com/docs/Gallium_Scintigraphy_in_Inflammation_v3.pdf. Created June 2, 2004. Accessed July 31, 2015
                      8. Raoof S et al: Imaging of unusual diffuse lung diseases. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 10(5):383-9, 2004
                      9. Schuster DM et al: Gallium and other agents in diseases of the lung. Semin Nucl Med. 32(3):193-211, 2002
                      10. Turoglu HT et al: Tumor and infection localization in AIDS patients: Ga-67 and Tl-201 findings. Clin Nucl Med. 23(7):446-59, 1998
                      11. Thallous chloride Tl 201 Injection. http://www.nuclearonline.org/PI/Nycomed%20Tl-201%20Tl%20Chloride.pdf. Arlington Heights, IL: Amersham, 1995
                      12. Vanarthos WJ et al: Diagnostic uses of nuclear medicine in AIDS. Radiographics. 12(4):731-49; discussion 749-52, 1992
                      13. Reiss TF et al: Abnormal lung gallium-67 uptake preceding pulmonary physiologic impairment in an asymptomatic patient with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Chest. 97(5):1261-3, 1990
                      14. Kramer EL et al: Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Nucl Med. 28(7):1107-14, 1987
                      15. Barron TF et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia studied by gallium-67 scanning. Radiology. 154(3):791-3, 1985
                      Related Anatomy
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                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                      References
                      Tables

                      Tables

                      KEY FACTS

                      • Terminology

                        • Imaging

                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                            TERMINOLOGY

                            • Definitions

                              • Atypical pneumonias and opportunistic infections
                                • Affect patients with HIV, cancer, or those on immunosuppressive therapy (for collagen vascular disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, post transplant)

                            IMAGING

                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Zanoni BC et al: Update on opportunistic infections in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 28(3):501-518, 2014
                                          2. Pupaibool J et al: Other HIV-associated pneumonias. Clin Chest Med. 34(2):243-54, 2013
                                          3. Sathekge M et al: FDG-PET imaging in HIV infection and tuberculosis. Semin Nucl Med. 43(5):349-66, 2013
                                          4. Sathekge M et al: Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. Nucl Med Commun. 33(6):581-90, 2012
                                          5. Liu Y: Demonstrations of AIDS-associated malignancies and infections at FDG PET-CT. Ann Nucl Med. 25(8):536-46, 2011
                                          6. Nakazato T et al: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia detected by FDG-PET. Ann Hematol. 89(8):839-40, 2010
                                          7. Palestro J et al. Society of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guideline for Gallium Scintigraphy in Inflammation. http://snmmi.files.cms-plus.com/docs/Gallium_Scintigraphy_in_Inflammation_v3.pdf. Created June 2, 2004. Accessed July 31, 2015
                                          8. Raoof S et al: Imaging of unusual diffuse lung diseases. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 10(5):383-9, 2004
                                          9. Schuster DM et al: Gallium and other agents in diseases of the lung. Semin Nucl Med. 32(3):193-211, 2002
                                          10. Turoglu HT et al: Tumor and infection localization in AIDS patients: Ga-67 and Tl-201 findings. Clin Nucl Med. 23(7):446-59, 1998
                                          11. Thallous chloride Tl 201 Injection. http://www.nuclearonline.org/PI/Nycomed%20Tl-201%20Tl%20Chloride.pdf. Arlington Heights, IL: Amersham, 1995
                                          12. Vanarthos WJ et al: Diagnostic uses of nuclear medicine in AIDS. Radiographics. 12(4):731-49; discussion 749-52, 1992
                                          13. Reiss TF et al: Abnormal lung gallium-67 uptake preceding pulmonary physiologic impairment in an asymptomatic patient with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Chest. 97(5):1261-3, 1990
                                          14. Kramer EL et al: Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Nucl Med. 28(7):1107-14, 1987
                                          15. Barron TF et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia studied by gallium-67 scanning. Radiology. 154(3):791-3, 1985