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Atypical Infectious Diseases
Bhavana Budigi, MD; Todd Michael Danziger, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Atypical pneumonias and opportunistic infections
            • Affect patients with HIV, cancer, or those on immunosuppressive therapy (for collagen vascular disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, post transplant)

        IMAGING

        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

          • Imaging Recommendations

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              CLINICAL ISSUES

              • Demographics

                • Natural History & Prognosis

                  • Treatment

                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                    • Consider

                      Selected References

                      1. Christe A et al: Imaging patterns of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-positive and renal transplant patients - a multicentre study. Swiss Med Wkly. 149:w20130, 2019
                      2. Kim B et al: Atypical presentation of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in HIV infected patients: Three different manifestations. J Korean Med Sci. 33(15):e115, 2018
                      3. Koo HJ et al: Radiographic and CT features of viral pneumonia. Radiographics. 38(3):719-39, 2018
                      4. Chou SH et al: Thoracic diseases associated with HIV infection in the era of antiretroviral therapy: clinical and imaging findings. Radiographics. 34(4):895-911, 2014
                      5. Ferrand H et al: [Pulmonary manifestations in HIV-infected patients: a diagnostic approach.] Rev Mal Respir. 31(10):903-15, 2014
                      6. Walker CM et al: Imaging pulmonary infection: classic signs and patterns. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(3):479-92, 2014
                      7. Zanoni BC et al: Update on opportunistic infections in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 28(3):501-18, 2014
                      8. Pupaibool J et al: Other HIV-associated pneumonias. Clin Chest Med. 34(2):243-54, 2013
                      9. Sathekge M et al: FDG-PET imaging in HIV infection and tuberculosis. Semin Nucl Med. 43(5):349-66, 2013
                      10. Sathekge M et al: Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. Nucl Med Commun. 33(6):581-90, 2012
                      11. Liu Y: Demonstrations of AIDS-associated malignancies and infections at FDG PET-CT. Ann Nucl Med. 25(8):536-46, 2011
                      12. Nakazato T et al: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia detected by FDG-PET. Ann Hematol. 89(8):839-40, 2010
                      13. Raoof S et al: Imaging of unusual diffuse lung diseases. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 10(5):383-9, 2004
                      14. Palestro J et al. Society of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guideline for Gallium Scintigraphy in Inflammation. http://snmmi.files.cms-plus.com/docs/Gallium_Scintigraphy_in_Inflammation_v3.pdf. Created June 2, 2004. Accessed July 31, 2015
                      15. Schuster DM et al: Gallium and other agents in diseases of the lung. Semin Nucl Med. 32(3):193-211, 2002
                      16. Reiss TF et al: Abnormal lung gallium-67 uptake preceding pulmonary physiologic impairment in an asymptomatic patient with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Chest. 97(5):1261-3, 1990
                      Related Anatomy
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                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                      References
                      Tables

                      Tables

                      KEY FACTS

                      • Terminology

                        • Imaging

                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                            TERMINOLOGY

                            • Definitions

                              • Atypical pneumonias and opportunistic infections
                                • Affect patients with HIV, cancer, or those on immunosuppressive therapy (for collagen vascular disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, post transplant)

                            IMAGING

                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Christe A et al: Imaging patterns of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-positive and renal transplant patients - a multicentre study. Swiss Med Wkly. 149:w20130, 2019
                                          2. Kim B et al: Atypical presentation of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in HIV infected patients: Three different manifestations. J Korean Med Sci. 33(15):e115, 2018
                                          3. Koo HJ et al: Radiographic and CT features of viral pneumonia. Radiographics. 38(3):719-39, 2018
                                          4. Chou SH et al: Thoracic diseases associated with HIV infection in the era of antiretroviral therapy: clinical and imaging findings. Radiographics. 34(4):895-911, 2014
                                          5. Ferrand H et al: [Pulmonary manifestations in HIV-infected patients: a diagnostic approach.] Rev Mal Respir. 31(10):903-15, 2014
                                          6. Walker CM et al: Imaging pulmonary infection: classic signs and patterns. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(3):479-92, 2014
                                          7. Zanoni BC et al: Update on opportunistic infections in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 28(3):501-18, 2014
                                          8. Pupaibool J et al: Other HIV-associated pneumonias. Clin Chest Med. 34(2):243-54, 2013
                                          9. Sathekge M et al: FDG-PET imaging in HIV infection and tuberculosis. Semin Nucl Med. 43(5):349-66, 2013
                                          10. Sathekge M et al: Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. Nucl Med Commun. 33(6):581-90, 2012
                                          11. Liu Y: Demonstrations of AIDS-associated malignancies and infections at FDG PET-CT. Ann Nucl Med. 25(8):536-46, 2011
                                          12. Nakazato T et al: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia detected by FDG-PET. Ann Hematol. 89(8):839-40, 2010
                                          13. Raoof S et al: Imaging of unusual diffuse lung diseases. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 10(5):383-9, 2004
                                          14. Palestro J et al. Society of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guideline for Gallium Scintigraphy in Inflammation. http://snmmi.files.cms-plus.com/docs/Gallium_Scintigraphy_in_Inflammation_v3.pdf. Created June 2, 2004. Accessed July 31, 2015
                                          15. Schuster DM et al: Gallium and other agents in diseases of the lung. Semin Nucl Med. 32(3):193-211, 2002
                                          16. Reiss TF et al: Abnormal lung gallium-67 uptake preceding pulmonary physiologic impairment in an asymptomatic patient with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Chest. 97(5):1261-3, 1990