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Axillary Breast Tissue
Jessica W. T. Leung, MD; Wei Tse Yang, MBBS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Ectopic breast tissue
            • Definitions

              • Supernumerary breast tissue
                • Persistence of mammary ridge tissue
                • May have associated nipple &/or areolar complex
              • Accessory (or aberrant) breast tissue in axillary tail
                • Separate from mammary glandular parenchyma, yet close to usual anatomic extent of breast
              • Tail of Spence
                • Direct extension of mammary glandular parenchyma from breast into axilla

            IMAGING

            • Mammographic Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                Selected References

                                1. Gajaria PK et al: Fibroadenoma in axillary ectopic breast tissue mimicking lymphadenopathy. J Clin Diagn Res. 11(3):ED01-ED02, 2017
                                2. Gupta A et al: Review of axillary lesions, emphasising some distinctive imaging and pathology findings. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. ePub, 2017
                                3. Lim HS et al: Sonographic findings of accessory breast tissue in axilla and related diseases. J Ultrasound Med. ePub, 2017
                                4. Surd A et al: Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast in a 17-year-old girl: Case report. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 29(5):e79-81, 2016
                                5. Nardello SM et al: Invasive mucinous carcinoma arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue: a case report and literature review. Am J Case Rep. 16:153-9, 2015
                                6. Patel BK et al: Imaging Findings and management of primary breast cancer in accessory axillary breast tissue. Clin Breast Cancer. 15(4):e223-9, 2015
                                7. DeFilippis EM et al: The ABCs of accessory breast tissue: basic information every radiologist should know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(5):1157-62, 2014
                                8. Gao YG et al: A case of accessory mammary cancer in a male patient and a literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 35(4):452-5, 2014
                                9. Husain M et al: Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2014, 2014
                                10. Lee J et al: Ductal carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue following microcalcification observed on screening mammography: a case report and review of the literature. J Breast Cancer. 17(4):393-6, 2014
                                11. Naraynsingh V et al: Anatomic and clinical rationale of the V-sign to detect accessory axillary breast tissue. Int J Womens Health. 6:245-8, 2014
                                12. Devine C et al: Invasive lobular carcinoma arising in accessory breast tissue. World J Surg Oncol. 11:47, 2013
                                13. Ahmed M et al: Primary carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue in axilla. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 22(11):726-7, 2012
                                14. Dhebri A et al: Skin lesion in axilla: an unusual presentation of invasive lobular carcinoma of breast. BMJ Case Rep, 2012
                                15. Seifert F et al: Bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue. Lancet. 380(9844):835, 2012
                                16. Nihon-Yanagi Y et al: A case of ectopic breast cancer with a literature review. Surg Oncol. 20(1):35-42, 2011
                                17. Osswald SS et al: Ectopic breasts: familial functional axillary breasts and breast cancer arising in an axillary breast. Cutis. 87(6):300-4, 2011
                                18. Mukhopadhyay M et al: Fibroadenoma of the ectopic breast of the axilla. Indian J Surg. 72(2):143-5, 2010
                                19. Sawa M et al: Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn J Radiol. 28(8):613-7, 2010
                                20. Teke Z et al: Primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma arising in aberrant breast tissue of the axilla: a rare entity. Report of a case. Tumori. 94(4):577-83, 2008
                                21. Laor T et al: MRI appearance of accessory breast tissue: a diagnostic consideration for an axillary mass in a peripubertal or pubertal girl. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(6):1779-81, 2004
                                22. Galli-Tsinopoulou A et al: Familial polythelia over three generations with polymastia in the youngest girl. Eur J Pediatr. 160(6):375-7, 2001
                                23. Rosen PP: Rosen's Breast Pathology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 25-6, 2001
                                24. Schmidt H: Supernumerary nipples: prevalence, size, sex and side predilection -- a prospective clinical study. Eur J Pediatr. 157(10):821-3, 1998
                                25. Scanlan KA et al: Accessory breast tissue in an unusual location. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(2):339-40, 1996
                                26. Evans DM et al: Carcinoma of the axillary breast. J Surg Oncol. 59(3):190-5, 1995
                                27. Velanovich V: Ectopic breast tissue, supernumerary breasts, and supernumerary nipples. South Med J. 88(9):903-6, 1995
                                28. Marshall MB et al: Ectopic breast cancer: case report and literature review. Surg Oncol. 3(5):295-304, 1994
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Pathology

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Ectopic breast tissue
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Supernumerary breast tissue
                                              • Persistence of mammary ridge tissue
                                              • May have associated nipple &/or areolar complex
                                            • Accessory (or aberrant) breast tissue in axillary tail
                                              • Separate from mammary glandular parenchyma, yet close to usual anatomic extent of breast
                                            • Tail of Spence
                                              • Direct extension of mammary glandular parenchyma from breast into axilla

                                          IMAGING

                                          • Mammographic Findings

                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Demographics

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Gajaria PK et al: Fibroadenoma in axillary ectopic breast tissue mimicking lymphadenopathy. J Clin Diagn Res. 11(3):ED01-ED02, 2017
                                                              2. Gupta A et al: Review of axillary lesions, emphasising some distinctive imaging and pathology findings. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. ePub, 2017
                                                              3. Lim HS et al: Sonographic findings of accessory breast tissue in axilla and related diseases. J Ultrasound Med. ePub, 2017
                                                              4. Surd A et al: Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast in a 17-year-old girl: Case report. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 29(5):e79-81, 2016
                                                              5. Nardello SM et al: Invasive mucinous carcinoma arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue: a case report and literature review. Am J Case Rep. 16:153-9, 2015
                                                              6. Patel BK et al: Imaging Findings and management of primary breast cancer in accessory axillary breast tissue. Clin Breast Cancer. 15(4):e223-9, 2015
                                                              7. DeFilippis EM et al: The ABCs of accessory breast tissue: basic information every radiologist should know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(5):1157-62, 2014
                                                              8. Gao YG et al: A case of accessory mammary cancer in a male patient and a literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 35(4):452-5, 2014
                                                              9. Husain M et al: Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2014, 2014
                                                              10. Lee J et al: Ductal carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue following microcalcification observed on screening mammography: a case report and review of the literature. J Breast Cancer. 17(4):393-6, 2014
                                                              11. Naraynsingh V et al: Anatomic and clinical rationale of the V-sign to detect accessory axillary breast tissue. Int J Womens Health. 6:245-8, 2014
                                                              12. Devine C et al: Invasive lobular carcinoma arising in accessory breast tissue. World J Surg Oncol. 11:47, 2013
                                                              13. Ahmed M et al: Primary carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue in axilla. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 22(11):726-7, 2012
                                                              14. Dhebri A et al: Skin lesion in axilla: an unusual presentation of invasive lobular carcinoma of breast. BMJ Case Rep, 2012
                                                              15. Seifert F et al: Bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue. Lancet. 380(9844):835, 2012
                                                              16. Nihon-Yanagi Y et al: A case of ectopic breast cancer with a literature review. Surg Oncol. 20(1):35-42, 2011
                                                              17. Osswald SS et al: Ectopic breasts: familial functional axillary breasts and breast cancer arising in an axillary breast. Cutis. 87(6):300-4, 2011
                                                              18. Mukhopadhyay M et al: Fibroadenoma of the ectopic breast of the axilla. Indian J Surg. 72(2):143-5, 2010
                                                              19. Sawa M et al: Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn J Radiol. 28(8):613-7, 2010
                                                              20. Teke Z et al: Primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma arising in aberrant breast tissue of the axilla: a rare entity. Report of a case. Tumori. 94(4):577-83, 2008
                                                              21. Laor T et al: MRI appearance of accessory breast tissue: a diagnostic consideration for an axillary mass in a peripubertal or pubertal girl. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(6):1779-81, 2004
                                                              22. Galli-Tsinopoulou A et al: Familial polythelia over three generations with polymastia in the youngest girl. Eur J Pediatr. 160(6):375-7, 2001
                                                              23. Rosen PP: Rosen's Breast Pathology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 25-6, 2001
                                                              24. Schmidt H: Supernumerary nipples: prevalence, size, sex and side predilection -- a prospective clinical study. Eur J Pediatr. 157(10):821-3, 1998
                                                              25. Scanlan KA et al: Accessory breast tissue in an unusual location. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(2):339-40, 1996
                                                              26. Evans DM et al: Carcinoma of the axillary breast. J Surg Oncol. 59(3):190-5, 1995
                                                              27. Velanovich V: Ectopic breast tissue, supernumerary breasts, and supernumerary nipples. South Med J. 88(9):903-6, 1995
                                                              28. Marshall MB et al: Ectopic breast cancer: case report and literature review. Surg Oncol. 3(5):295-304, 1994