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Base of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Luke N. Ledbetter, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Base of tongue (BOT) squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
            • Synonyms

              • Lingual tonsil SCCa
            • Definitions

              • Epithelial tumor arising in oropharyngeal tonsillar tissue at tongue base
                • Extends from posterior 1/3 of tongue to valleculae
                • Distinct entity from oral tongue SCCa

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Taghipour M et al: Use of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography for patient management and outcome in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a review. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1-7, 2015
                                            2. Corey A: Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of the oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):47-66, 2013
                                            3. Loevner LA et al: Transoral robotic surgery in head and neck cancer: what radiologists need to know about the cutting edge. Radiographics. 33(6):1759-79, 2013
                                            4. Trotta BM et al: Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer: key imaging findings for staging and treatment planning. Radiographics. 31(2):339-54, 2011
                                            5. Ahmed M et al: The value of magnetic resonance imaging in target volume delineation of base of tongue tumours--a study using flexible surface coils. Radiother Oncol. 94(2):161-7, 2010
                                            6. Attner P et al: The role of human papillomavirus in the increased incidence of base of tongue cancer. Int J Cancer. 126(12):2879-84, 2010
                                            7. Budrukkar A et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue in a patient with Fanconi's anemia treated with radiation therapy: case report and review of literature. Head Neck. 32(10):1422-7, 2010
                                            8. Marur S et al: HPV-associated head and neck cancer: a virus-related cancer epidemic. Lancet Oncol. 11(8):781-9, 2010
                                            9. Pederson AW et al: Chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Head Neck. 32(11):1519-27, 2010
                                            10. Cianchetti M et al: Diagnostic evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown head and neck primary site. Laryngoscope. 119(12):2348-54, 2009
                                            11. Cohan DM et al: Oropharyngeal cancer: current understanding and management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 17(2):88-94, 2009
                                            12. Cobo F et al: Review article: relationship of human papillomavirus with papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review. Int J Surg Pathol. 16(2):127-36, 2008
                                            13. Zima AJ et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of oropharyngeal cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):237-42, 2007
                                            14. Shiboski CH et al: Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Cancer. 103(9):1843-9, 2005
                                            15. Gandhi D et al: Computed tomography perfusion of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. Initial results. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(5):687-93, 2003
                                            16. LoTempio MM et al: Treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancers with chemotherapy and radiation. Ear Nose Throat J. 82(5):367-70, 2003
                                            17. Pletcher SD et al: Management of cervical metastases in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 129(9):983-6, 2003
                                            18. Sessions DG et al: Analysis of treatment results for base of tongue cancer. Laryngoscope. 113(7):1252-61, 2003
                                            19. Parsons JT et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: surgery, radiation therapy, or both. Cancer. 94(11):2967-80, 2002
                                            20. Kuriakose MA et al: Tumour volume estimated by computed tomography as a predictive factor in carcinoma of the tongue. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(5):460-5, 2000
                                            21. Brunin F et al: Cancer of the base of the tongue: past and future. Head Neck. 21(8):751-9, 1999
                                            22. Moharir VM et al: Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of head and neck tumors. Laryngoscope. 108(11 Pt 1):1592-8, 1998
                                            23. Mukherji SK et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and oral cavity: how imaging makes a difference. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 19(6):463-75, 1998
                                            24. Mukherji SK et al: Squamous cell carcinomas that arise in the oral cavity and tongue base: can CT help predict perineural or vascular invasion? Radiology. 198(1):157-62, 1996
                                            25. Sigal R et al: CT and MR imaging of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Radiographics. 16(4):787-810, 1996
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Base of tongue (BOT) squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Lingual tonsil SCCa
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Epithelial tumor arising in oropharyngeal tonsillar tissue at tongue base
                                                          • Extends from posterior 1/3 of tongue to valleculae
                                                          • Distinct entity from oral tongue SCCa

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Taghipour M et al: Use of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography for patient management and outcome in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a review. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1-7, 2015
                                                                                      2. Corey A: Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of the oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):47-66, 2013
                                                                                      3. Loevner LA et al: Transoral robotic surgery in head and neck cancer: what radiologists need to know about the cutting edge. Radiographics. 33(6):1759-79, 2013
                                                                                      4. Trotta BM et al: Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer: key imaging findings for staging and treatment planning. Radiographics. 31(2):339-54, 2011
                                                                                      5. Ahmed M et al: The value of magnetic resonance imaging in target volume delineation of base of tongue tumours--a study using flexible surface coils. Radiother Oncol. 94(2):161-7, 2010
                                                                                      6. Attner P et al: The role of human papillomavirus in the increased incidence of base of tongue cancer. Int J Cancer. 126(12):2879-84, 2010
                                                                                      7. Budrukkar A et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue in a patient with Fanconi's anemia treated with radiation therapy: case report and review of literature. Head Neck. 32(10):1422-7, 2010
                                                                                      8. Marur S et al: HPV-associated head and neck cancer: a virus-related cancer epidemic. Lancet Oncol. 11(8):781-9, 2010
                                                                                      9. Pederson AW et al: Chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Head Neck. 32(11):1519-27, 2010
                                                                                      10. Cianchetti M et al: Diagnostic evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown head and neck primary site. Laryngoscope. 119(12):2348-54, 2009
                                                                                      11. Cohan DM et al: Oropharyngeal cancer: current understanding and management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 17(2):88-94, 2009
                                                                                      12. Cobo F et al: Review article: relationship of human papillomavirus with papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review. Int J Surg Pathol. 16(2):127-36, 2008
                                                                                      13. Zima AJ et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of oropharyngeal cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):237-42, 2007
                                                                                      14. Shiboski CH et al: Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Cancer. 103(9):1843-9, 2005
                                                                                      15. Gandhi D et al: Computed tomography perfusion of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. Initial results. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(5):687-93, 2003
                                                                                      16. LoTempio MM et al: Treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancers with chemotherapy and radiation. Ear Nose Throat J. 82(5):367-70, 2003
                                                                                      17. Pletcher SD et al: Management of cervical metastases in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 129(9):983-6, 2003
                                                                                      18. Sessions DG et al: Analysis of treatment results for base of tongue cancer. Laryngoscope. 113(7):1252-61, 2003
                                                                                      19. Parsons JT et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: surgery, radiation therapy, or both. Cancer. 94(11):2967-80, 2002
                                                                                      20. Kuriakose MA et al: Tumour volume estimated by computed tomography as a predictive factor in carcinoma of the tongue. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(5):460-5, 2000
                                                                                      21. Brunin F et al: Cancer of the base of the tongue: past and future. Head Neck. 21(8):751-9, 1999
                                                                                      22. Moharir VM et al: Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of head and neck tumors. Laryngoscope. 108(11 Pt 1):1592-8, 1998
                                                                                      23. Mukherji SK et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and oral cavity: how imaging makes a difference. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 19(6):463-75, 1998
                                                                                      24. Mukherji SK et al: Squamous cell carcinomas that arise in the oral cavity and tongue base: can CT help predict perineural or vascular invasion? Radiology. 198(1):157-62, 1996
                                                                                      25. Sigal R et al: CT and MR imaging of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Radiographics. 16(4):787-810, 1996