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Biloma
Siva P. Raman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Loculated collection of bile within abdomen resulting from bile leak

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Image-Guided Biopsy

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Melamud K et al: Biliary imaging: multimodality approach to imaging of biliary injuries and their complications. Radiographics. 34(3):613-23, 2014
                                            2. Arun S et al: Added value of SPECT/CT over planar Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of bile leaks. Nucl Med Commun. 34(5):459-66, 2013
                                            3. Baillie J: Endoscopic approach to the patient with bile duct injury. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 23(2):461-72, 2013
                                            4. Cieszanowski A et al: Detection of active bile leak with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: comparison of 20-25 min delayed and 60-180 min delayed images. Eur J Radiol. 82(12):2176-82, 2013
                                            5. Pioche M et al: Management of bile duct leaks. J Visc Surg. 150(3 Suppl):S33-8, 2013
                                            6. Tana C et al: Sonographic assessment of a suspected biloma: A case report and review of the literature. World J Radiol. 5(5):220-5, 2013
                                            7. Chang IS et al: Biloma formation after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: incidence, imaging features, and clinical significance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Nov;195(5):1131-6. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(6):1292, 2010
                                            8. Singh AK et al: Postoperative imaging in liver transplantation: what radiologists should know. Radiographics. 30(2):339-51, 2010
                                            9. Howard R et al: Biloma: a delayed complication of blunt hepatic injury. J Emerg Med. 34(1):33-5, 2008
                                            10. Kim JH et al: Bile leak following living donor liver transplantation: clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic treatment. Liver Transpl. 14(8):1142-9, 2008
                                            11. Mizuno O et al: An iatrogenic hepatic subcapsular biloma successfully treated by percutaneous drainage and endoscopic biliary stenting. Endoscopy. 40 Suppl 2:E42-3, 2008
                                            12. Shami VM et al: EUS-guided drainage of bilomas: a new alternative?. Gastrointest Endosc. 67(1):136-40, 2008
                                            13. Ishikawa M et al: Progression and regression of biloma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy evaluated by computed tomography. Int Surg. 90(3):137-40, 2005
                                            14. Yoon W et al: CT in blunt liver trauma. Radiographics. 25(1):87-104, 2005
                                            15. Bridges MD et al: Diagnosing biliary complications of orthotopic liver transplantation with mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR cholangiography: comparison with conventional MR cholangiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(6):1497-504, 2004
                                            16. Khalid TR et al: Using MR cholangiopancreatography to evaluate iatrogenic bile duct injury. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 177(6):1347-52, 2001
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Loculated collection of bile within abdomen resulting from bile leak

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Melamud K et al: Biliary imaging: multimodality approach to imaging of biliary injuries and their complications. Radiographics. 34(3):613-23, 2014
                                                                                      2. Arun S et al: Added value of SPECT/CT over planar Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of bile leaks. Nucl Med Commun. 34(5):459-66, 2013
                                                                                      3. Baillie J: Endoscopic approach to the patient with bile duct injury. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 23(2):461-72, 2013
                                                                                      4. Cieszanowski A et al: Detection of active bile leak with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: comparison of 20-25 min delayed and 60-180 min delayed images. Eur J Radiol. 82(12):2176-82, 2013
                                                                                      5. Pioche M et al: Management of bile duct leaks. J Visc Surg. 150(3 Suppl):S33-8, 2013
                                                                                      6. Tana C et al: Sonographic assessment of a suspected biloma: A case report and review of the literature. World J Radiol. 5(5):220-5, 2013
                                                                                      7. Chang IS et al: Biloma formation after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: incidence, imaging features, and clinical significance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Nov;195(5):1131-6. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(6):1292, 2010
                                                                                      8. Singh AK et al: Postoperative imaging in liver transplantation: what radiologists should know. Radiographics. 30(2):339-51, 2010
                                                                                      9. Howard R et al: Biloma: a delayed complication of blunt hepatic injury. J Emerg Med. 34(1):33-5, 2008
                                                                                      10. Kim JH et al: Bile leak following living donor liver transplantation: clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic treatment. Liver Transpl. 14(8):1142-9, 2008
                                                                                      11. Mizuno O et al: An iatrogenic hepatic subcapsular biloma successfully treated by percutaneous drainage and endoscopic biliary stenting. Endoscopy. 40 Suppl 2:E42-3, 2008
                                                                                      12. Shami VM et al: EUS-guided drainage of bilomas: a new alternative?. Gastrointest Endosc. 67(1):136-40, 2008
                                                                                      13. Ishikawa M et al: Progression and regression of biloma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy evaluated by computed tomography. Int Surg. 90(3):137-40, 2005
                                                                                      14. Yoon W et al: CT in blunt liver trauma. Radiographics. 25(1):87-104, 2005
                                                                                      15. Bridges MD et al: Diagnosing biliary complications of orthotopic liver transplantation with mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR cholangiography: comparison with conventional MR cholangiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(6):1497-504, 2004
                                                                                      16. Khalid TR et al: Using MR cholangiopancreatography to evaluate iatrogenic bile duct injury. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 177(6):1347-52, 2001