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Birth Injury
Usha D. Nagaraj, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Birth trauma, birth-related injury
            • Definitions

              • Mechanical trauma to head due to birthing process
                • Scalp injury
                  • Caput succedaneum
                  • Subgaleal hematoma
                  • Cephalohematoma
                • Calvarial fracture
                • Intracranial hemorrhage
                  • Subdural hematoma: Most common
                  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
                  • Intraventricular hemorrhage
                  • Epidural hematoma
                  • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
              • Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury sometimes considered as birth trauma but not covered here

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Gupta R et al: Neonatal birth trauma: analysis of yearly trends, risk factors, and outcomes. J Pediatr. ePub, 2021
                                          2. Nikam RM et al: Birth-related subdural hemorrhage: prevalence and imaging morphology. Pediatr Radiol. 51(6):939-46, 2021
                                          3. Bansal AG et al: US of pediatric superficial masses of the head and neck. Radiographics. 38(4):1239-63, 2018
                                          4. Chaturvedi A et al: Mechanical birth-related trauma to the neonate: an imaging perspective. Insights Imaging. 9(1):103-18, 2018
                                          5. Ilhan O et al: Spontaneous resolution of a 'ping-pong' fracture at birth. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018
                                          6. Tan AP et al: Intracranial hemorrhage in neonates: a review of etiologies, patterns and predicted clinical outcomes. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 22(4):690-717, 2018
                                          7. Rabelo NN et al: Traumatic brain lesions in newborns. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 75(3):180-8, 2017
                                          8. Ghei SK et al: MR imaging of hypoxic-ischemic injury in term neonates: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 34(4):1047-61, 2014
                                          9. Peterson JA et al: Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Br J Haematol. 161(1):3-14, 2013
                                          10. Barkovich AJ et al: Pediatric Neuroimaging. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012
                                          11. Moczygemba CK et al: Route of delivery and neonatal birth trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 202(4):361.e1-6, 2010
                                          12. Rooks VJ et al: Prevalence and evolution of intracranial hemorrhage in asymptomatic term infants. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(6):1082-9, 2008
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Birth trauma, birth-related injury
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Mechanical trauma to head due to birthing process
                                                        • Scalp injury
                                                          • Caput succedaneum
                                                          • Subgaleal hematoma
                                                          • Cephalohematoma
                                                        • Calvarial fracture
                                                        • Intracranial hemorrhage
                                                          • Subdural hematoma: Most common
                                                          • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
                                                          • Intraventricular hemorrhage
                                                          • Epidural hematoma
                                                          • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
                                                      • Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury sometimes considered as birth trauma but not covered here

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Gupta R et al: Neonatal birth trauma: analysis of yearly trends, risk factors, and outcomes. J Pediatr. ePub, 2021
                                                                                  2. Nikam RM et al: Birth-related subdural hemorrhage: prevalence and imaging morphology. Pediatr Radiol. 51(6):939-46, 2021
                                                                                  3. Bansal AG et al: US of pediatric superficial masses of the head and neck. Radiographics. 38(4):1239-63, 2018
                                                                                  4. Chaturvedi A et al: Mechanical birth-related trauma to the neonate: an imaging perspective. Insights Imaging. 9(1):103-18, 2018
                                                                                  5. Ilhan O et al: Spontaneous resolution of a 'ping-pong' fracture at birth. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018
                                                                                  6. Tan AP et al: Intracranial hemorrhage in neonates: a review of etiologies, patterns and predicted clinical outcomes. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 22(4):690-717, 2018
                                                                                  7. Rabelo NN et al: Traumatic brain lesions in newborns. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 75(3):180-8, 2017
                                                                                  8. Ghei SK et al: MR imaging of hypoxic-ischemic injury in term neonates: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 34(4):1047-61, 2014
                                                                                  9. Peterson JA et al: Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Br J Haematol. 161(1):3-14, 2013
                                                                                  10. Barkovich AJ et al: Pediatric Neuroimaging. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012
                                                                                  11. Moczygemba CK et al: Route of delivery and neonatal birth trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 202(4):361.e1-6, 2010
                                                                                  12. Rooks VJ et al: Prevalence and evolution of intracranial hemorrhage in asymptomatic term infants. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(6):1082-9, 2008