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Bladder Calculi
Bryan R. Foster, MD; Amir A. Borhani, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Bladder stones, lower urinary tract stones
            • Definitions

              • Concretions of mineral salts within bladder lumen
              • Classified as migrant (migrated from upper urinary tract), primary (idiopathic), and secondary (in setting of stasis, infection, or nidus)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Al-Hajjaj M et al: Neglected double J stent for 8 Years with giant bladder calculi formation: A case report. Urol Case Rep. 32:101195, 2020
                                          2. Carnahan MB et al: Demonstration of 99mTc-MDP uptake in a mobile urinary bladder calculus on SPECT/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 45(1):60-2, 2020
                                          3. Carneiro C et al: Jackstone calculus. Urology. 137:e6-e7, 2020
                                          4. Jang JY et al: Comparison of three different endoscopic approaches in the treatment of bladder calculi. Yeungnam Univ J Med. 36(1):16-19, 2019
                                          5. Razik A et al: Urinary diversions: a primer of the surgical techniques and imaging findings. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(12):3906-18, 2019
                                          6. Jung JH et al: The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract stones in adult men: A retrospective multicenter study. Asian J Urol. 5(2):118-121, 2018
                                          7. McQueen TS et al: A "hanging" bladder stone. Abdom Radiol (NY). 42(12):2959-61, 2017
                                          8. Torricelli FC et al: Multiple uric acid bladder stones: Clinical presentation and endoscopic management. J Endourol Case Rep. 3(1):21-3, 2017
                                          9. Sweeney AP et al: The "jackstone" appearance. Abdom Imaging. 40(7):2906-7, 2015
                                          10. Philippou P et al: The management of bladder lithiasis in the modern era of endourology. Urology. 79(5):980-6, 2012
                                          11. Catalá V et al: CT findings in urinary diversion after radical cystectomy: postsurgical anatomy and complications. Radiographics. 29(2):461-76, 2009
                                          12. Ord J et al: Bladder management and risk of bladder stone formation in spinal cord injured patients. J Urol. 170(5):1734-7, 2003
                                          13. Schwartz BF et al: The vesical calculus. Urol Clin North Am. 27(2):333-46, 2000
                                          14. Dyer RB et al: Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics. 18(6):1405-24, 1998
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Bladder stones, lower urinary tract stones
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Concretions of mineral salts within bladder lumen
                                                      • Classified as migrant (migrated from upper urinary tract), primary (idiopathic), and secondary (in setting of stasis, infection, or nidus)

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Al-Hajjaj M et al: Neglected double J stent for 8 Years with giant bladder calculi formation: A case report. Urol Case Rep. 32:101195, 2020
                                                                                  2. Carnahan MB et al: Demonstration of 99mTc-MDP uptake in a mobile urinary bladder calculus on SPECT/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 45(1):60-2, 2020
                                                                                  3. Carneiro C et al: Jackstone calculus. Urology. 137:e6-e7, 2020
                                                                                  4. Jang JY et al: Comparison of three different endoscopic approaches in the treatment of bladder calculi. Yeungnam Univ J Med. 36(1):16-19, 2019
                                                                                  5. Razik A et al: Urinary diversions: a primer of the surgical techniques and imaging findings. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(12):3906-18, 2019
                                                                                  6. Jung JH et al: The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract stones in adult men: A retrospective multicenter study. Asian J Urol. 5(2):118-121, 2018
                                                                                  7. McQueen TS et al: A "hanging" bladder stone. Abdom Radiol (NY). 42(12):2959-61, 2017
                                                                                  8. Torricelli FC et al: Multiple uric acid bladder stones: Clinical presentation and endoscopic management. J Endourol Case Rep. 3(1):21-3, 2017
                                                                                  9. Sweeney AP et al: The "jackstone" appearance. Abdom Imaging. 40(7):2906-7, 2015
                                                                                  10. Philippou P et al: The management of bladder lithiasis in the modern era of endourology. Urology. 79(5):980-6, 2012
                                                                                  11. Catalá V et al: CT findings in urinary diversion after radical cystectomy: postsurgical anatomy and complications. Radiographics. 29(2):461-76, 2009
                                                                                  12. Ord J et al: Bladder management and risk of bladder stone formation in spinal cord injured patients. J Urol. 170(5):1734-7, 2003
                                                                                  13. Schwartz BF et al: The vesical calculus. Urol Clin North Am. 27(2):333-46, 2000
                                                                                  14. Dyer RB et al: Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics. 18(6):1405-24, 1998