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Blount Disease
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Developmental condition characterized by disordered endochondral ossification of posteromedial portion of proximal tibial physis
              • Results in multiplanar deformities of lower limb
            • Clinically distinct forms
              • Early onset (infantile): Onset ≤ 4 years of age
              • Juvenile type: Onset 4-10 years of age
              • Adolescent type (late onset): Onset > 10 years of age

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Sabharwal S: Blount disease: an update. Orthop Clin North Am. 46(1):37-47, 2015
                                  2. Gill KG et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric knee. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):743-63, 2014
                                  3. Ho-Fung V et al: MRI evaluation of the knee in children with infantile Blount disease: tibial and extra-tibial findings. Pediatr Radiol. 43(10):1316-26, 2013
                                  4. Aird JJ et al: Femoral torsion in patients with Blount's disease: a previously unrecognised component. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(10):1388-93, 2009
                                  5. Gilbody J et al: Acute versus gradual correction of idiopathic tibia vara in children: a systematic review. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(2):110-4, 2009
                                  6. Kleinman PK et al: Metaphyseal fragmentation with physiologic bowing: a finding not to be confused with the classic metaphyseal lesion. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1266-8, 2009
                                  7. McCarthy JJ et al: Double osteotomy for the treatment of severe Blount disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(2):115-9, 2009
                                  8. Sabharwal S: Blount disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(7):1758-76, 2009
                                  9. Castañeda P et al: Hemiepiphysiodesis for the correction of angular deformity about the knee. J Pediatr Orthop. 28(2):188-91, 2008
                                  10. Sabharwal S et al: Correlation of body mass index and radiographic deformities in children with Blount disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 89(6):1275-83, 2007
                                  11. Sabharwal S et al: Multiplanar deformity analysis of untreated Blount disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Apr-May;27(3):260-5. Erratum in: J Pediatr Orthop. 27(4):483, 2007
                                  12. Scott AC et al: Body mass index as a prognostic factor in development of infantile Blount disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 27(8):921-5, 2007
                                  13. Gordon JE et al: Comprehensive treatment of late-onset tibia vara. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 87(7):1561-70, 2005
                                  14. Cheema JI et al: Radiographic characteristics of lower-extremity bowing in children. Radiographics. 23(4):871-80, 2003
                                  15. Herman TE et al: Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia associated with tibia vara. Radiology. 177(3):767-8, 1990
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Developmental condition characterized by disordered endochondral ossification of posteromedial portion of proximal tibial physis
                                              • Results in multiplanar deformities of lower limb
                                            • Clinically distinct forms
                                              • Early onset (infantile): Onset ≤ 4 years of age
                                              • Juvenile type: Onset 4-10 years of age
                                              • Adolescent type (late onset): Onset > 10 years of age

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Sabharwal S: Blount disease: an update. Orthop Clin North Am. 46(1):37-47, 2015
                                                                  2. Gill KG et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric knee. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):743-63, 2014
                                                                  3. Ho-Fung V et al: MRI evaluation of the knee in children with infantile Blount disease: tibial and extra-tibial findings. Pediatr Radiol. 43(10):1316-26, 2013
                                                                  4. Aird JJ et al: Femoral torsion in patients with Blount's disease: a previously unrecognised component. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(10):1388-93, 2009
                                                                  5. Gilbody J et al: Acute versus gradual correction of idiopathic tibia vara in children: a systematic review. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(2):110-4, 2009
                                                                  6. Kleinman PK et al: Metaphyseal fragmentation with physiologic bowing: a finding not to be confused with the classic metaphyseal lesion. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1266-8, 2009
                                                                  7. McCarthy JJ et al: Double osteotomy for the treatment of severe Blount disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(2):115-9, 2009
                                                                  8. Sabharwal S: Blount disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(7):1758-76, 2009
                                                                  9. Castañeda P et al: Hemiepiphysiodesis for the correction of angular deformity about the knee. J Pediatr Orthop. 28(2):188-91, 2008
                                                                  10. Sabharwal S et al: Correlation of body mass index and radiographic deformities in children with Blount disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 89(6):1275-83, 2007
                                                                  11. Sabharwal S et al: Multiplanar deformity analysis of untreated Blount disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Apr-May;27(3):260-5. Erratum in: J Pediatr Orthop. 27(4):483, 2007
                                                                  12. Scott AC et al: Body mass index as a prognostic factor in development of infantile Blount disease. J Pediatr Orthop. 27(8):921-5, 2007
                                                                  13. Gordon JE et al: Comprehensive treatment of late-onset tibia vara. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 87(7):1561-70, 2005
                                                                  14. Cheema JI et al: Radiographic characteristics of lower-extremity bowing in children. Radiographics. 23(4):871-80, 2003
                                                                  15. Herman TE et al: Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia associated with tibia vara. Radiology. 177(3):767-8, 1990