link
Bookmarks
Body Stalk Anomaly
Anne M. Kennedy, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
0
9
2
7

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Limb-body wall complex (primary diagnosis if coexistent limb anomalies)
              • Definitions

                • Lethal malformation characterized by attachment of visceral organs to placenta, with short or absent umbilical cord

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    • MR Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Gajzer DC et al: Possible genetic origin of limb-body wall complex. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 34(4):257-70, 2015
                                        2. Kocherla K et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk complex: a rare entity and review of literature. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(1):67-70, 2015
                                        3. Pakdaman R et al: Complex abdominal wall defects: appearances at prenatal imaging. Radiographics. 35(2):636-49, 2015
                                        4. Aguirre-Pascual E et al: Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex. Pediatr Radiol. 44(11):1412-20, 2014
                                        5. Gazolla AC et al: Limb-body wall defect: experience of a reference service of fetal medicine from Southern Brazil. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 100(10):739-49, 2014
                                        6. Quijano FE et al: Body stalk anomaly in a 9-week pregnancy. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014:357285, 2014
                                        7. Bugge M: Body stalk anomaly in Denmark during 20 years (1970-1989). Am J Med Genet A. 158A(7):1702-8, 2012
                                        8. Costa ML et al: Body stalk anomaly: adverse maternal outcomes in a series of 21 cases. Prenat Diagn. 32(3):264-7, 2012
                                        9. Hunter AG et al: Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies? Am J Med Genet A. 155A(9):2045-59, 2011
                                        10. Murphy A et al: First-trimester diagnosis of body stalk anomaly using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 30(12):1739-43, 2011
                                        11. Hacivelioglu S et al: Limb body wall defect: three different presentations with abdominal wall defects. J Obstet Gynaecol. 30(7):737-8, 2010
                                        12. Sepulveda W et al: Fetal spinal anomalies in a first-trimester sonographic screening program for aneuploidy. Prenat Diagn. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                        13. Chen CP et al: Limb-body wall complex in one fetus of a dizygotic twin pregnancy conceived by egg donation, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: prenatal diagnosis and literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 48(4):446-50, 2009
                                        14. Stein W et al: Pentalogy of Cantrell vs. limb body wall complex: differential diagnosis of a severe malformation in early pregnancy. Ultraschall Med. 30(6):598-601, 2009
                                        15. Adonakis G et al: A case of body stalk anomaly at 12 weeks of gestation. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):218-20, 2008
                                        16. Spiller E et al: Body stalk anomaly: management of two dichorionic-diamniotic pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 21(10):758-9, 2008
                                        17. Tsirka A et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk anomaly in the first trimester of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 20(2):183-4, 2007
                                        18. de Ravel T et al: Primary body stalk anomaly in a first trimester fetus. Genet Couns. 15(2):237-8, 2004
                                        19. Daskalakis G et al: Body stalk anomaly diagnosed in the 2nd trimester. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(5):342-4, 2003
                                        20. Liu IF et al: Prenatal diagnosis of limb-body wall complex in early pregnancy using three-dimensional ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 23(6):513-4, 2003
                                        21. Smrcek JM et al: Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and management of body stalk anomaly: analysis of nine singleton and two multiple pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 21(4):322-8, 2003
                                        22. Daskalakis GJ et al: Monozygotic twins discordant for body stalk anomaly. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 20(1):79-81, 2002
                                        23. Luehr B et al: Limb-body wall complex: a case series. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 12(2):132-7, 2002
                                        24. Paul C et al: A case of body stalk anomaly at 10 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 17(2):157-9, 2001
                                        25. Pumberger W et al: Limb-body wall complex: a compound anomaly pattern in body-wall defects. Pediatr Surg Int. 17(5-6):486-90, 2001
                                        26. Chen CP et al: Prenatal diagnosis of limb-body wall complex using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 20(12):1020, 2000
                                        27. Colpaert C et al: Limb-body wall complex: 4 new cases illustrating the importance of examining placenta and umbilical cord. Pathol Res Pract. 196(11):783-90, 2000
                                        28. Daskalakis G et al: Body stalk anomaly at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 10(6):416-8, 1997
                                        29. Ginsberg NE et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk anomaly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 10(6):419-21, 1997
                                        30. Takeuchi K et al: Body stalk anomaly: prenatal diagnosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 51(1):49-52, 1995
                                        31. Russo R et al: Limb body wall complex: a critical review and a nosological proposal. Am J Med Genet. 47(6):893-900, 1993
                                        32. Van Allen MI et al: Limb body wall complex: I. Pathogenesis. Am J Med Genet. 28(3):529-48, 1987
                                        33. Van Allen MI et al: Limb-body wall complex: II. Limb and spine defects. Am J Med Genet. 28(3):549-65, 1987
                                        Related Anatomy
                                        Loading...
                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
                                        Loading...
                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Limb-body wall complex (primary diagnosis if coexistent limb anomalies)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Lethal malformation characterized by attachment of visceral organs to placenta, with short or absent umbilical cord

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Gajzer DC et al: Possible genetic origin of limb-body wall complex. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 34(4):257-70, 2015
                                                                              2. Kocherla K et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk complex: a rare entity and review of literature. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(1):67-70, 2015
                                                                              3. Pakdaman R et al: Complex abdominal wall defects: appearances at prenatal imaging. Radiographics. 35(2):636-49, 2015
                                                                              4. Aguirre-Pascual E et al: Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex. Pediatr Radiol. 44(11):1412-20, 2014
                                                                              5. Gazolla AC et al: Limb-body wall defect: experience of a reference service of fetal medicine from Southern Brazil. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 100(10):739-49, 2014
                                                                              6. Quijano FE et al: Body stalk anomaly in a 9-week pregnancy. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014:357285, 2014
                                                                              7. Bugge M: Body stalk anomaly in Denmark during 20 years (1970-1989). Am J Med Genet A. 158A(7):1702-8, 2012
                                                                              8. Costa ML et al: Body stalk anomaly: adverse maternal outcomes in a series of 21 cases. Prenat Diagn. 32(3):264-7, 2012
                                                                              9. Hunter AG et al: Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies? Am J Med Genet A. 155A(9):2045-59, 2011
                                                                              10. Murphy A et al: First-trimester diagnosis of body stalk anomaly using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 30(12):1739-43, 2011
                                                                              11. Hacivelioglu S et al: Limb body wall defect: three different presentations with abdominal wall defects. J Obstet Gynaecol. 30(7):737-8, 2010
                                                                              12. Sepulveda W et al: Fetal spinal anomalies in a first-trimester sonographic screening program for aneuploidy. Prenat Diagn. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                                                              13. Chen CP et al: Limb-body wall complex in one fetus of a dizygotic twin pregnancy conceived by egg donation, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: prenatal diagnosis and literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 48(4):446-50, 2009
                                                                              14. Stein W et al: Pentalogy of Cantrell vs. limb body wall complex: differential diagnosis of a severe malformation in early pregnancy. Ultraschall Med. 30(6):598-601, 2009
                                                                              15. Adonakis G et al: A case of body stalk anomaly at 12 weeks of gestation. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):218-20, 2008
                                                                              16. Spiller E et al: Body stalk anomaly: management of two dichorionic-diamniotic pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 21(10):758-9, 2008
                                                                              17. Tsirka A et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk anomaly in the first trimester of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 20(2):183-4, 2007
                                                                              18. de Ravel T et al: Primary body stalk anomaly in a first trimester fetus. Genet Couns. 15(2):237-8, 2004
                                                                              19. Daskalakis G et al: Body stalk anomaly diagnosed in the 2nd trimester. Fetal Diagn Ther. 18(5):342-4, 2003
                                                                              20. Liu IF et al: Prenatal diagnosis of limb-body wall complex in early pregnancy using three-dimensional ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 23(6):513-4, 2003
                                                                              21. Smrcek JM et al: Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and management of body stalk anomaly: analysis of nine singleton and two multiple pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 21(4):322-8, 2003
                                                                              22. Daskalakis GJ et al: Monozygotic twins discordant for body stalk anomaly. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 20(1):79-81, 2002
                                                                              23. Luehr B et al: Limb-body wall complex: a case series. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 12(2):132-7, 2002
                                                                              24. Paul C et al: A case of body stalk anomaly at 10 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 17(2):157-9, 2001
                                                                              25. Pumberger W et al: Limb-body wall complex: a compound anomaly pattern in body-wall defects. Pediatr Surg Int. 17(5-6):486-90, 2001
                                                                              26. Chen CP et al: Prenatal diagnosis of limb-body wall complex using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 20(12):1020, 2000
                                                                              27. Colpaert C et al: Limb-body wall complex: 4 new cases illustrating the importance of examining placenta and umbilical cord. Pathol Res Pract. 196(11):783-90, 2000
                                                                              28. Daskalakis G et al: Body stalk anomaly at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 10(6):416-8, 1997
                                                                              29. Ginsberg NE et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk anomaly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 10(6):419-21, 1997
                                                                              30. Takeuchi K et al: Body stalk anomaly: prenatal diagnosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 51(1):49-52, 1995
                                                                              31. Russo R et al: Limb body wall complex: a critical review and a nosological proposal. Am J Med Genet. 47(6):893-900, 1993
                                                                              32. Van Allen MI et al: Limb body wall complex: I. Pathogenesis. Am J Med Genet. 28(3):529-48, 1987
                                                                              33. Van Allen MI et al: Limb-body wall complex: II. Limb and spine defects. Am J Med Genet. 28(3):549-65, 1987