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Body Stalk Anomaly
Anne Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Limb-body wall complex (primary diagnosis if coexistent limb anomalies)
                  • Likely that many are actually due to amniotic bands
              • Definitions

                • Controversial: Simplest is malformation characterized by attachment of visceral organs to placenta with short or absent umbilical cord

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    • MR Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Nagase H et al: Prenatal ultrasonographic findings and fetal/neonatal outcomes of body stalk anomaly. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). ePub, 2021
                                        2. Martín-Alguacil N: Anatomy-based diagnostic criteria for complex body wall anomalies (CBWA). Mol Genet Genomic Med. 8(10):e1465, 2020
                                        3. Gulczyński J et al: Limb body wall complex - the history of the entity and presentation of our series of cases. Pol J Pathol. 70(1):33-41, 2019
                                        4. Caldas R et al: Dichorionic twins discordant for body-stalk anomaly: a management challenge. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018
                                        5. Coleman PW et al: Fetal MRI in the identification of a fetal ventral wall defect spectrum. AJP Rep. 8(4):e264-76, 2018
                                        6. Bijok J et al: Complex malformations involving the fetal body wall - definition and classification issues. Prenat Diagn. 37(10):1033-9, 2017
                                        7. Gajzer DC et al: Possible genetic origin of limb-body wall complex. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 34(4):257-70, 2015
                                        8. Kocherla K et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk complex: a rare entity and review of literature. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(1):67-70, 2015
                                        9. Pakdaman R et al: Complex abdominal wall defects: appearances at prenatal imaging. Radiographics. 35(2):636-49, 2015
                                        10. Aguirre-Pascual E et al: Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex. Pediatr Radiol. 44(11):1412-20, 2014
                                        11. Gazolla AC et al: Limb-body wall defect: experience of a reference service of fetal medicine from Southern Brazil. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 100(10):739-49, 2014
                                        12. Quijano FE et al: Body stalk anomaly in a 9-week pregnancy. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014:357285, 2014
                                        13. Bugge M: Body stalk anomaly in Denmark during 20 years (1970-1989). Am J Med Genet A. 158A(7):1702-8, 2012
                                        14. Costa ML et al: Body stalk anomaly: adverse maternal outcomes in a series of 21 cases. Prenat Diagn. 32(3):264-7, 2012
                                        15. Hunter AG et al: Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies? Am J Med Genet A. 155A(9):2045-59, 2011
                                        16. Murphy A et al: First-trimester diagnosis of body stalk anomaly using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 30(12):1739-43, 2011
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Limb-body wall complex (primary diagnosis if coexistent limb anomalies)
                                                        • Likely that many are actually due to amniotic bands
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Controversial: Simplest is malformation characterized by attachment of visceral organs to placenta with short or absent umbilical cord

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Nagase H et al: Prenatal ultrasonographic findings and fetal/neonatal outcomes of body stalk anomaly. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). ePub, 2021
                                                                              2. Martín-Alguacil N: Anatomy-based diagnostic criteria for complex body wall anomalies (CBWA). Mol Genet Genomic Med. 8(10):e1465, 2020
                                                                              3. Gulczyński J et al: Limb body wall complex - the history of the entity and presentation of our series of cases. Pol J Pathol. 70(1):33-41, 2019
                                                                              4. Caldas R et al: Dichorionic twins discordant for body-stalk anomaly: a management challenge. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018
                                                                              5. Coleman PW et al: Fetal MRI in the identification of a fetal ventral wall defect spectrum. AJP Rep. 8(4):e264-76, 2018
                                                                              6. Bijok J et al: Complex malformations involving the fetal body wall - definition and classification issues. Prenat Diagn. 37(10):1033-9, 2017
                                                                              7. Gajzer DC et al: Possible genetic origin of limb-body wall complex. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 34(4):257-70, 2015
                                                                              8. Kocherla K et al: Prenatal diagnosis of body stalk complex: a rare entity and review of literature. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(1):67-70, 2015
                                                                              9. Pakdaman R et al: Complex abdominal wall defects: appearances at prenatal imaging. Radiographics. 35(2):636-49, 2015
                                                                              10. Aguirre-Pascual E et al: Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex. Pediatr Radiol. 44(11):1412-20, 2014
                                                                              11. Gazolla AC et al: Limb-body wall defect: experience of a reference service of fetal medicine from Southern Brazil. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 100(10):739-49, 2014
                                                                              12. Quijano FE et al: Body stalk anomaly in a 9-week pregnancy. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014:357285, 2014
                                                                              13. Bugge M: Body stalk anomaly in Denmark during 20 years (1970-1989). Am J Med Genet A. 158A(7):1702-8, 2012
                                                                              14. Costa ML et al: Body stalk anomaly: adverse maternal outcomes in a series of 21 cases. Prenat Diagn. 32(3):264-7, 2012
                                                                              15. Hunter AG et al: Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies? Am J Med Genet A. 155A(9):2045-59, 2011
                                                                              16. Murphy A et al: First-trimester diagnosis of body stalk anomaly using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 30(12):1739-43, 2011