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Bone Fracture
James F. Griffith, MD, MRCP, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Definitions

        • Fracture (fx): Traumatic discontinuity of bone usually involving both cortical and trabecular bone
        • Trabecular microfracture: Fx limited to trabecular component of bone without clear fx line
          • Diffuse bone marrow edema on MR imaging but no discrete fx line
        • Stress fx: Fx occurring in normal bone due to excessive repetitive submaximal loading
        • Stress reaction of bone: Trabecular microfracture occurring in normal bone due to repetitive excessive submaximal loading
        • Insufficiency fx: Fx occurring in diffusely weakened bone subjected to normal loading
          • Usually due to osteoporosis; other causes include renal osteodystrophy and chronic bisphosphonate therapy
        • Pathologic fx: Fx occurring in focally weakened bone subjected to normal loading
          • Usually due to metastatic infiltration or primary bone tumor; infection is another cause

      IMAGING

      • General Features

        • Radiographic Findings

          • MR Findings

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Consider

                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                              Selected References

                              1. Lee IS et al: Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures: a comparison with conventional radiography and computed tomography. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 273(2):413-8, 2016
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Imaging

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Definitions

                                    • Fracture (fx): Traumatic discontinuity of bone usually involving both cortical and trabecular bone
                                    • Trabecular microfracture: Fx limited to trabecular component of bone without clear fx line
                                      • Diffuse bone marrow edema on MR imaging but no discrete fx line
                                    • Stress fx: Fx occurring in normal bone due to excessive repetitive submaximal loading
                                    • Stress reaction of bone: Trabecular microfracture occurring in normal bone due to repetitive excessive submaximal loading
                                    • Insufficiency fx: Fx occurring in diffusely weakened bone subjected to normal loading
                                      • Usually due to osteoporosis; other causes include renal osteodystrophy and chronic bisphosphonate therapy
                                    • Pathologic fx: Fx occurring in focally weakened bone subjected to normal loading
                                      • Usually due to metastatic infiltration or primary bone tumor; infection is another cause

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                      • MR Findings

                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                              PATHOLOGY

                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                • Presentation

                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                    • Treatment

                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                      • Consider

                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Lee IS et al: Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures: a comparison with conventional radiography and computed tomography. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 273(2):413-8, 2016