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Brachial Plexopathy
Arthur B. Meyers, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Neonatal/perinatal brachial plexus palsy, birth palsy, brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI), shoulder contracture
            • Glenohumeral dysplasia, shoulder dysplasia
          • Definitions

            • Brachial plexopathy: Injury to ≥ 1 brachial plexus nerve roots, trunks, or cords → upper extremity contracture
            • Glenohumeral dysplasia: Sequelae of brachial plexopathy on developing glenoid & humeral head

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Kim HHR et al: Contemporary imaging of the pediatric shoulder: pearls and pitfalls. Pediatr Radiol. 51(3):338-52, 2021
                                          2. Ditzler MG et al: Modified Friedman technique: a new proposed method of measuring glenoid version in the setting of glenohumeral dysplasia. Pediatr Radiol. 48(12):1779-85, 2018
                                          3. Donohue KW et al: Comparison of ultrasound and MRI for the diagnosis of glenohumeral dysplasia in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 99(2):123-32, 2017
                                          4. Stein J et al: The effect of scapular position on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of glenohumeral dysplasia caused by neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Surg Am. 42(12):1030.e1-11, 2017
                                          5. van de Bunt F et al: Analysis of normal and dysplastic glenohumeral morphology at magnetic resonance imaging in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Pediatr Radiol. 47(10):1337-44, 2017
                                          6. Gharbaoui IS et al: Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Ther. 28(2):176-83; quiz 184, 2015
                                          7. Menashe SJ et al: Brachial plexus birth palsy: multimodality imaging of spine and shoulder abnormalities in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(2):W199-206, 2015
                                          8. Kozin SH et al: Advanced imaging and arthroscopic management of shoulder contracture after birth palsy. Hand Clin. 28(4):541-50, 2012
                                          9. Lippert WC et al: The intrarater and interrater reliability of glenoid version and glenohumeral subluxation measurements in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 32(4):378-84, 2012
                                          10. Pöyhiä TH et al: Brachial plexus birth injury: US screening for glenohumeral joint instability. Radiology. 254(1):253-60, 2010
                                          11. Grissom LE et al: Infant shoulder sonography: technique, anatomy, and pathology. Pediatr Radiol. 31(12):863-8, 2001
                                          12. Waters PM et al: Glenohumeral deformity secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 80(5):668-77, 1998
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Neonatal/perinatal brachial plexus palsy, birth palsy, brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI), shoulder contracture
                                                    • Glenohumeral dysplasia, shoulder dysplasia
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Brachial plexopathy: Injury to ≥ 1 brachial plexus nerve roots, trunks, or cords → upper extremity contracture
                                                    • Glenohumeral dysplasia: Sequelae of brachial plexopathy on developing glenoid & humeral head

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Kim HHR et al: Contemporary imaging of the pediatric shoulder: pearls and pitfalls. Pediatr Radiol. 51(3):338-52, 2021
                                                                                  2. Ditzler MG et al: Modified Friedman technique: a new proposed method of measuring glenoid version in the setting of glenohumeral dysplasia. Pediatr Radiol. 48(12):1779-85, 2018
                                                                                  3. Donohue KW et al: Comparison of ultrasound and MRI for the diagnosis of glenohumeral dysplasia in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 99(2):123-32, 2017
                                                                                  4. Stein J et al: The effect of scapular position on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of glenohumeral dysplasia caused by neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Surg Am. 42(12):1030.e1-11, 2017
                                                                                  5. van de Bunt F et al: Analysis of normal and dysplastic glenohumeral morphology at magnetic resonance imaging in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Pediatr Radiol. 47(10):1337-44, 2017
                                                                                  6. Gharbaoui IS et al: Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Ther. 28(2):176-83; quiz 184, 2015
                                                                                  7. Menashe SJ et al: Brachial plexus birth palsy: multimodality imaging of spine and shoulder abnormalities in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(2):W199-206, 2015
                                                                                  8. Kozin SH et al: Advanced imaging and arthroscopic management of shoulder contracture after birth palsy. Hand Clin. 28(4):541-50, 2012
                                                                                  9. Lippert WC et al: The intrarater and interrater reliability of glenoid version and glenohumeral subluxation measurements in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 32(4):378-84, 2012
                                                                                  10. Pöyhiä TH et al: Brachial plexus birth injury: US screening for glenohumeral joint instability. Radiology. 254(1):253-60, 2010
                                                                                  11. Grissom LE et al: Infant shoulder sonography: technique, anatomy, and pathology. Pediatr Radiol. 31(12):863-8, 2001
                                                                                  12. Waters PM et al: Glenohumeral deformity secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 80(5):668-77, 1998