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Brain Death
Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Death by neurologic criteria (DNC)
              • Definitions

                • Complete, irreversible cessation of brain function

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Other Modality Findings

                            • Imaging Recommendations

                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                PATHOLOGY

                                • General Features

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Hernández-Hernández MÁ et al: The observation period after clinical brain death diagnosis according to ancillary tests: differences between supratentorial and infratentorial brain injury. J Neurol. 266(8):1859-68, 2019
                                      2. Rizvi T et al: Brain death: diagnosis and imaging techniques. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 39(5):515-29, 2018
                                      3. Garrett MP et al: Computed tomography angiography as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brain death. J Neurosurg. 1-6, 2017
                                      4. Spinello IM: Brain death determination. J Intensive Care Med. 30(6):326-37, 2015
                                      5. Burkle CM et al: Why brain death is considered death and why there should be no confusion. Neurology. 83(16):1464-9, 2014
                                      6. Flamm AL et al: Family members' requests to extend physiologic support after declaration of brain death: a case series analysis and proposed guidelines for clinical management. J Clin Ethics. 25(3):222-37, 2014
                                      7. Shemie SD et al: International guideline development for the determination of death. Intensive Care Med. 40(6):788-97, 2014
                                      8. Taylor T et al: Computed tomography (CT) angiography for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of brain death. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3:CD009694, 2014
                                      9. Wijdicks EF et al: Evidence-based guideline update: determining brain death in adults: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 74(23):1911-8, 2010
                                      10. Wijman CA et al: Prognostic value of brain diffusion-weighted imaging after cardiac arrest. Ann Neurol. 65(4):394-402, 2009
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Death by neurologic criteria (DNC)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Complete, irreversible cessation of brain function

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Other Modality Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Hernández-Hernández MÁ et al: The observation period after clinical brain death diagnosis according to ancillary tests: differences between supratentorial and infratentorial brain injury. J Neurol. 266(8):1859-68, 2019
                                                                          2. Rizvi T et al: Brain death: diagnosis and imaging techniques. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 39(5):515-29, 2018
                                                                          3. Garrett MP et al: Computed tomography angiography as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brain death. J Neurosurg. 1-6, 2017
                                                                          4. Spinello IM: Brain death determination. J Intensive Care Med. 30(6):326-37, 2015
                                                                          5. Burkle CM et al: Why brain death is considered death and why there should be no confusion. Neurology. 83(16):1464-9, 2014
                                                                          6. Flamm AL et al: Family members' requests to extend physiologic support after declaration of brain death: a case series analysis and proposed guidelines for clinical management. J Clin Ethics. 25(3):222-37, 2014
                                                                          7. Shemie SD et al: International guideline development for the determination of death. Intensive Care Med. 40(6):788-97, 2014
                                                                          8. Taylor T et al: Computed tomography (CT) angiography for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of brain death. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3:CD009694, 2014
                                                                          9. Wijdicks EF et al: Evidence-based guideline update: determining brain death in adults: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 74(23):1911-8, 2010
                                                                          10. Wijman CA et al: Prognostic value of brain diffusion-weighted imaging after cardiac arrest. Ann Neurol. 65(4):394-402, 2009