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Branchial Cleft Anomalies
Bernadette L. Koch, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Branchial cleft cyst, branchial apparatus cyst (BAC), branchial apparatus anomaly (BAA)
          • Definitions

            • Anomaly/remnant of embryologic endodermal pouch, mesodermal arch, or ectodermal cleft
            • May be cyst, fistula, or sinus tract

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Shinn JR et al: First branchial cleft anomalies: otologic manifestations and treatment outcomes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(3):506-12, 2015
                                  2. Goff CJ et al: Current management of congenital branchial cleft cysts, sinuses, and fistulae. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 20(6):533-9, 2012
                                  3. Bajaj Y et al: Branchial anomalies in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 75(8):1020-3, 2011
                                  4. Pahlavan S et al: Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Laryngoscope. 120(3):458-62, 2010
                                  5. Thomas B et al: Revisiting imaging features and the embryologic basis of third and fourth branchial anomalies. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(4):755-60, 2010
                                  6. Sturm-O'Brien AK et al: Cervical thymic anomalies--the Texas Children's Hospital experience. Laryngoscope. 119(10):1988-93, 2009
                                  7. Koch BL: Cystic malformations of the neck in children. Pediatr Radiol. 35(5):463-77, 2005
                                  8. Mukherji SK et al: Imaging of congenital anomalies of the branchial apparatus. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 10(1):75-93, viii, 2000
                                  9. Benson MT et al: Congenital anomalies of the branchial apparatus: embryology and pathologic anatomy. Radiographics. 12(5):943-60, 1992
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Branchial cleft cyst, branchial apparatus cyst (BAC), branchial apparatus anomaly (BAA)
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Anomaly/remnant of embryologic endodermal pouch, mesodermal arch, or ectodermal cleft
                                            • May be cyst, fistula, or sinus tract

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Shinn JR et al: First branchial cleft anomalies: otologic manifestations and treatment outcomes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(3):506-12, 2015
                                                                  2. Goff CJ et al: Current management of congenital branchial cleft cysts, sinuses, and fistulae. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 20(6):533-9, 2012
                                                                  3. Bajaj Y et al: Branchial anomalies in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 75(8):1020-3, 2011
                                                                  4. Pahlavan S et al: Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Laryngoscope. 120(3):458-62, 2010
                                                                  5. Thomas B et al: Revisiting imaging features and the embryologic basis of third and fourth branchial anomalies. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(4):755-60, 2010
                                                                  6. Sturm-O'Brien AK et al: Cervical thymic anomalies--the Texas Children's Hospital experience. Laryngoscope. 119(10):1988-93, 2009
                                                                  7. Koch BL: Cystic malformations of the neck in children. Pediatr Radiol. 35(5):463-77, 2005
                                                                  8. Mukherji SK et al: Imaging of congenital anomalies of the branchial apparatus. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 10(1):75-93, viii, 2000
                                                                  9. Benson MT et al: Congenital anomalies of the branchial apparatus: embryology and pathologic anatomy. Radiographics. 12(5):943-60, 1992