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Bronchial Atresia
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP; Randy R. Richardson, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Focal interruption of main, lobar, segmental, or subsegmental bronchus with associated mucoid impaction (bronchocele/mucocele) & hyperinflation of distal lung
                • ± hyperplasia of distal lung depending on level of bronchial obstruction

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Adams NC et al: Fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a primer on how to interpret prenatal lung lesions. Pediatr Radiol. 50(13):1839-54, 2020
                                          2. Masroujeh R et al: Endobronchial treatment of bronchial atresia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 200(3):e25-6, 2019
                                          3. Higuchi R et al: Surgery for congenital bronchial atresia. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 26(6):485-8, 2018
                                          4. Kozaki M et al: Fetal congenital peripheral bronchial atresia diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging: two case reports. AJP Rep. 8(4):e201-5, 2018
                                          5. Watanabe T et al: An investigation on clinical differences between congenital pulmonary airway malformation and bronchial atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 53(12):2390-3, 2018
                                          6. Alamo L et al: Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. Pediatr Radiol. 46(3):383-90, 2016
                                          7. Zamora IJ et al: Mainstem bronchial atresia: a lethal anomaly amenable to fetal surgical treatment. J Pediatr Surg. 49(5):706-11, 2014
                                          8. Bonnefoy C et al: Prenatal diagnosis of lobar bronchial atresia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 37(1):110-2, 2011
                                          9. Biyyam DR et al: Congenital lung abnormalities: embryologic features, prenatal diagnosis, and postnatal radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1721-38, 2010
                                          10. Daltro P et al: Congenital chest malformations: a multimodality approach with emphasis on fetal MR imaging. Radiographics. 30(2):385-95, 2010
                                          11. Epelman M et al: Current imaging of prenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 31(2):141-57, 2010
                                          12. Lee EY et al: Multidetector CT evaluation of congenital lung anomalies. Radiology. 247(3):632-48, 2008
                                          13. Martinez S et al: Mucoid impactions: finger-in-glove sign and other CT and radiographic features. Radiographics. 28(5):1369-82, 2008
                                          14. Keswani SG et al: Prenatal diagnosis and management of mainstem bronchial atresia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 20(1):74-8, 2005
                                          15. Morikawa N et al: Congenital bronchial atresia in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg. 40(12):1822-6, 2005
                                          16. Daltro P et al: CT of congenital lung lesions in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(5):1497-506, 2004
                                          17. Zylak CJ et al: Developmental lung anomalies in the adult: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22 Spec No:S25-43, 2002
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Focal interruption of main, lobar, segmental, or subsegmental bronchus with associated mucoid impaction (bronchocele/mucocele) & hyperinflation of distal lung
                                                        • ± hyperplasia of distal lung depending on level of bronchial obstruction

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Adams NC et al: Fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a primer on how to interpret prenatal lung lesions. Pediatr Radiol. 50(13):1839-54, 2020
                                                                                  2. Masroujeh R et al: Endobronchial treatment of bronchial atresia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 200(3):e25-6, 2019
                                                                                  3. Higuchi R et al: Surgery for congenital bronchial atresia. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 26(6):485-8, 2018
                                                                                  4. Kozaki M et al: Fetal congenital peripheral bronchial atresia diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging: two case reports. AJP Rep. 8(4):e201-5, 2018
                                                                                  5. Watanabe T et al: An investigation on clinical differences between congenital pulmonary airway malformation and bronchial atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 53(12):2390-3, 2018
                                                                                  6. Alamo L et al: Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. Pediatr Radiol. 46(3):383-90, 2016
                                                                                  7. Zamora IJ et al: Mainstem bronchial atresia: a lethal anomaly amenable to fetal surgical treatment. J Pediatr Surg. 49(5):706-11, 2014
                                                                                  8. Bonnefoy C et al: Prenatal diagnosis of lobar bronchial atresia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 37(1):110-2, 2011
                                                                                  9. Biyyam DR et al: Congenital lung abnormalities: embryologic features, prenatal diagnosis, and postnatal radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1721-38, 2010
                                                                                  10. Daltro P et al: Congenital chest malformations: a multimodality approach with emphasis on fetal MR imaging. Radiographics. 30(2):385-95, 2010
                                                                                  11. Epelman M et al: Current imaging of prenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 31(2):141-57, 2010
                                                                                  12. Lee EY et al: Multidetector CT evaluation of congenital lung anomalies. Radiology. 247(3):632-48, 2008
                                                                                  13. Martinez S et al: Mucoid impactions: finger-in-glove sign and other CT and radiographic features. Radiographics. 28(5):1369-82, 2008
                                                                                  14. Keswani SG et al: Prenatal diagnosis and management of mainstem bronchial atresia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 20(1):74-8, 2005
                                                                                  15. Morikawa N et al: Congenital bronchial atresia in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg. 40(12):1822-6, 2005
                                                                                  16. Daltro P et al: CT of congenital lung lesions in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(5):1497-506, 2004
                                                                                  17. Zylak CJ et al: Developmental lung anomalies in the adult: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22 Spec No:S25-43, 2002